1 Why can't you stop your eternal complaining?
2 Hundreds of buildings were wrecked by the earthquake.
3 These paintings are considered by many to be authentic.
4 Many economists have given in to the fatal lure of mathematics.
5 Ten years after the event, her death still remains a puzzle.
6 John was irritated by the necessity for polite conversation,
7 Academic records cannot be duplicated.
8 The emphasis on the importance of education has spurred scientific research
9 We have ample money for the journey
10 The doctor's pills worked marvels for me.
11 Mary's perpetual moaning nearly drove me mad.
12 It was hard to say why the man deserved such shabby treatment
13 You didn't adhere to these principles.
14 The farmers also want to use the water to irrigate the barren land.
15 Anyone who wants to apply for a loan need read the following specifications.
Water-the Issue of This Century
The world is running short of fresh water. Populations are growing bigger and
Thirstier（渴的), with the result that freshwater is becoming increasingly scarce (缺乏). Half the world's wetlands have disappeared during the last century, while estimates suggest that water use will rise by 50% in the next 30 years.
The World Bank report estimates that as much as half of the world's population, concentrated in Africa, the Middle East and south Asia, will face 'severe water shortages' by 2025. Local water conflicts and the loss of freshwater ecosystems appear large in some regions.
A similar picture emerges from the globe's salt water regions. Three-quarters of the world's people may live within 100km of the sea in 2025, putting even more pressure on stretched coastal ecosystems. Two thirds of fisheries (渔业) are exploited at or beyond their sustainable limits, and half the world's coral reefs (珊瑚礁) may perish in 100 years. Almost 60% of coral reefs and 34% of fish species are at risk from human activities, the Bank says.
The report concludes that there is ample evidence to justify immediate and coordinated action to safeguard supplies and use water more efficiently.
Fresh water consumption is rising quickly, and the availability of water in some regions is likely to become one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century.
A third of the world's population - around two billion people - live in countries that are experiencing moderate to high water shortages. That proportion could rise to half or more in the next 30 years unless institutions (制度) change to ensure better conservation and allocation of water.
China is one country where the portents (征兆) are gloomy. The most water-stressed country in East Asia, China is exploiting 44% of its usable water, a figure projected to rise to 60% by 2020. Primary withdrawal of water of more than 60% is widely considered by water experts to exceed the environmental carrying capacity of a river basin system. Although China's total use appears still to be reasonable, it has several basins that are severely stressed environmentally.
Withdrawals exceed environmental limits in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and will exceed them in India by 2020. In the Middle East and North Africa, only Morocco has unexploited water resources. The rest have exceeded environmental limits and many are mining aquifers (蓄水层) - bodies of water-bearing rock - the report says.
16 It is estimated that water use will rise by 50% in the next 30 years.
17 Most developed countries will face water shortages in 20 years.
18 Most of the world's population may live within 100km of the sea in 2025.
19 Almost all coral reefs may disappear in 100 years.
20 Some species of fish in the Atlantic are at dangerously low levels.
21 The World Bank report implies that urgent action should be taken to protect water supplies.
22 India exceeds environmental limits for water use.
1 Chimpanzees (黑猩猩) will soon be extinct (灭绝). If the present rate of hunting and habitat (栖息地) destruction continues, then within 20 years, there will be no chimpanzees living in the wild. But this is more than an environmental or moral tragedy
(悲剧). Chimpanzee extinction may also have profound implications (含意) for the survival of their distant relatives - human beings.
2 In 1975 the biologist Marie-Claire King and Allan Wilson discovered that the human and chimpanzee genomes (基因组) match by over 98%. Compare this to the mouse,
used as model for human disease in lab tests, which shares only 60% of its DNA with us. In fact, chimpanzees are far more similar to humans than they are to any other species of monkey. As well as resembling us genetically, chimps are highly intelligent and able to use tools. These facts alone should be enough to make protection of chimps an urgent priority (优先). But there is another, more selfish reason to preserve the chimp.
3 The chimpanzees' trump card (王牌) comes in the field of medical research. Chimpanzees are so similar to humans that veterinarians (兽医) often refer to human medical textbooks when treating them. Yet chimpanzees do show differences in several key areas. In particular, chimps are much more resistant to a number of major diseases. It is this ability that is so interesting.
4 For example, chimps seem to show a much higher resistance than humans to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Indeed, their use as experimental animals in AIDS research has declined because they are so resistant.
5 By sequencing the chimp genome and pinpointing (找到) the place where the chimpanzee DNA sequence differs from that of humans, scientists hope to be able to discover which part of the genetic code gives chimps their increased resistance to some diseases. This, they hope, will allow them to develop new and more effective treatments for the human forms of these diseases. Such treatments could include the production of new drugs or even the alteration (改变) of the human genetic sequence. The recently completed human genome sequencing project has shown that such an effort is now well within our reach.
23 Paragraph 1
24 Paragraph 2
25 Paragraph 3
26 Paragraph 4
A Genetic differences between
chimps and" humans
B Reasons for HIV resistance
C Implications of chimpanzee extinction for humans
D Effective AIDS treatment
E Genetic similarities between chimps and humans
F Chimps' resistance to HIV
27 Chimpanzee extinction may affect
28 There is a difference of less than 2% between the chimp and
29 Scientists suspect that genes play a significant role in protecting chimps from getting
30 The discovery of the genetic code of chimps will be helpful to
A healthier lifestyle
B some human disease treatments
C some diseases
D human survival
E human genomes
F key areas
Youth Emancipation in Spain
The Spanish Government is so worried about the number of young adults still living with their parents that it has decided to help them leave the nest.
Around 55 percent of people aged 18-34 in Spain still sleep in their parents' homes, says the latest report from the country's state-run Institute of Youth.
To coax (劝诱) young people from their homes, the Institute started a "Youth
Emancipation (解放)" program this month. The program offers guidance in finding rooms and jobs.
Economists blame young people's family dependence on the precarious (不稳定的) labor market and increasing housing prices. Housing prices have risen 17 percent a year since 2000.
Cultural reasons also contribute to the problem, say sociologists (社会学家). Family ties in south Europe - Italy, Portugal and Greece - are stronger than those in middle and north Europe, said Spanish sociologist Almudena Moreno Minguez in her report "The Late Emancipation of Spanish Youth: Key for Understanding".
"In general, young people in Spain firmly believe in the family as the main body around which their private life is organized," said Minguez.
In Spain - especially in the countryside, it is not uncommon to find entire groups of aunts, uncles, cousins, nieces and nephews (外侄/侄子) all living on the same street. They regularly get together for Sunday dinner.
Parents' tolerance is another factor. Spanish parents accept late-night partying and are wary of setting bedtime rules.
"A child can arrive home at whatever time he wants. If parents complain he'll put up a fight and call the father a fascist," said Jose Antonio Gomez Yanez, a sociologist at Carlos III University in Madrid.
Mothers' willingness to do children's household chores (家务) worsens the problem. Dionisio Masso, a 60-year-old in Madrid, has three children in their 20s. The eldest, 28, has a girlfriend and a job. But life with mum is good.
"His mum does the wash and cooks for him: in the end. he lives well." Masso said.
31 The "Youth Emancipation" program aims at helping young people
A live in an independent way.
B fight for freedom.
C fight against social injustice.
D get rid of family responsibilities.
32 It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that family ties are stronger in Portugal than in
33 Young people's family dependence can be attributed to all the following factors
A parents' tolerance.
B housing problems.
C unwillingness to get married.
D cultural traditions.
34 Which of the following statements is ,NOT true of Dionisio Masso?
She has a boyfriend.
She is 60 years old.
She has three children.
She lives in Madrid.
35 The phrase "wary of" in paragraph 8 could be best replaced by
A tired of.
B afraid of.
C worried about.
D cautious about.
Listening to Birdsong
A male zebra finch (雀科鸣鸟) chirps (鸣) away to himself. Suddenly he notices a female bird nearby. He realizes he has an audience and immediately changes his song. Can the female tell the difference in his performance? According to a new study, the female zebra finch knows. And she prefers the special trills he creates when
he sings to her. A male zebra finch changes his song when singing to a female in ways that people can barely detect. But the female finch can tell the difference.
Scientists had noticed slight variations in the songs of male zebra finches based on whether they were singing alone or whether there was a female (and potential mate) nearby. With an audience, the males sped up the pace of their songs and controlled the notes they used.
For this study, .researchers Sarah C. Woolley and Allison Doupe at the University of California, San Francisco decided to focus attention on the listening females, which have not been well studied in the past.
In the study, Woolley and Doupe set up a long cage with a sound speaker at each end. One broadcast the sound of a male zebra finch singing to himself, like someone singing in the shower. The other speaker broadcast a male performing for a female audience, as if he was giving a concert.
Female birds were placed between the two speakers. Some of the birds had mates, others didn't. The females shifted around a bit, and then most of them hopped over to sit beside just one speaker. All the birds that made a clear choice liked songs meant for a female audience, even if they'd never met the male.
Mated females also had a chance to listen to two different performance songs, one from an unknown male, and one from their mate. They spent more time listening to the concert version of their mates' songs, this suggests that after a while, females learn to recognize - and prefer - the songs of their mates.
Scientists then studied the brains of the females. They found certain areas of the brain perked up (活跃起来) when the birds listened to the concert songs. These brain areas may be involved in recognizing and evaluating the songs, and storing the memories of them.
This research deals with what's called directed communication, when the communicator, or sender, focuses the message for a specific audience. One example is the way morns speak to their babies. Mothers around the world use the same sort of high-pitched sing-song chatter (喋喋不休), and the babies respond best to those sounds. Songbirds are one of the only other species known to learn their communication, in this case their songs.
36 Which of the following is true about birdsongs?
A Female zebra finches are too shy to sing before males.
Male zebra finches sing louder than females.
Male zebra finches change their songs to attract females.
Female zebra finches like to listen to unknown males sing
37 What did the researchers find in their study of female zebra finches?
A Female finches liked songs male finches sang for them.
Female finches only liked songs male finches sang for their mates
Female finches liked to listen to songs from both speakers,
Female finches chose the best male singers as their mates.
38 What is meant by "concert songs" in paragraph 7?
Songs sung by zebra finches at a concert.
Songs sung by female finches for male finches
Songs sung by male finches to other finches.
Songs sung by male finches for female finches
means communication in which
A the communicator sends messages to himself.
B the message sender has a specific audience.
C two communicators send messages to each other.
D mothers talk to their babies in their mother tongue.
40 Which of the following can best reflect the theme of the passage?
A Chirping away.
B Zebra finches and their life.
Frequencies of birdsongs.
D Birdsongs as communication.
The Robot Man
According to Hans Moravec, universal robots will take over all the physical activities that we engage in, leaving us with little to do. Moravec sees four generations on the road to true universal robots. The first generation will be here by 2010 and will consist of free-ranging robots that can navigate by building an internal mental map of their surroundings. In new situations they'll be able to adapt, unlike today's mobile industrial robots. These robots will have the computing power,to cope with simple speech and text recognition, and will be used for tasks such as domestic cleaning.
The second generation will arrive around 2020 and will be distinguished by the ability to learn. Second generation robots are programd with sets of primitive tasks and with feedback that provide "pleasure" and "pain" stimuli. For example, a collision provokes a negative response, a completed task would be positive.
Move forward another ten years to 2030 and you get to generation three. This robot can build internal simulations of the world around it. Before= beginning a task, it can imagine what will happen in order to predict problems. If it has a free moment, it can replay past experiences and try variations in order to find a better way of doing things next time. It could even observe a person or-another robot performing a task and learn by imitation. For the first time, we have here a robot that can think.
By the time we get to generation four in 2040, Moravec predicts that robots will be able to: match human reasoning and behaviour; generalise abstract ideas from specific experience; and, conversely, compile detailed plans of action from general commands such as 'earn a living' or 'make more robots'.
The Moravec manifesto (宣告) runs something like this. As robots start to become useful in generation one, they'll begin to take on-many tasks in industry. Driven
by the availability of this cheap and tireless labour force, the economy will boom and the demand for robots will grow so rapidly that they will soon become low-cost commodity items So much so that they'll move into the home, where the domestic robot will relieve us of many chores.
With increasing automation in generations two and three, the length of the average working day will plummet, eventually to near zero. Most people will be unemployed as robots take over not just primary industry, but the service economy too. Moravec sees the fourth generation as an opportunity to surpass our human limitations.
These future machines will be our "mind children". Like biological children of previous generations, they will embody humanity's best hope for a long-term future.
41 What will be the distinctive feature of the second generation robots?
They will be able to learn by themselves.
They will be able to recognize speeches and texts.
They will be able to predict problems.
They will be able to match human reasoning and behavior.
42 Which of the following statements is true of the future robots?
They will take over the information industry.
They will relieve us of many chores.
They will never surpass us.
They will become high-cost commodity items.
43 The author's main purpose is to
A support the view that robots will play a major role in our life.
B describe the life of Hans Moravec.
C make fun of the views of Hans Moravec.
D get people prepared for the threat of future robots.
44 The word "plummet" in paragraph 6 means
45 What does Moravec think of these future robots?
They will be humans' mind-children.
They will look like previous biological children
They will create a dangerous world.
They will rule the world.
My Life at Renda
I learned very quickly that being a teaching assistant (TA) at the University of Iowa would be different from being a teacher at Renmin University.
(46) Eyes staring, mouths open, students examined my big nose, while I was writing my name on the blackboard.
At Iowa, when my first classes began, half of my students still hadn't arrived. When everyone finally found a seat, ringing cellphones and loud yawns (哈欠) interrupted my opening remarks. It is not that American students were disrespectful. (47) They were, however, far more skeptical than the students I had at Renda. The truth is I couldn't fault them for their skepticism. Undergraduates at large US universities - especially freshmen and sophomores - often have several classes a semester handled by TAs. In some cases, the TA sets the course content. (48) Most have good intentions, but very few are as effective as professors.
Every teacher has to confront obstacles to learning - no matter what the culture. Students who talk during lectures, students who cheat, students who question the grade they get for a paper or project - dealing with these is all part of the job. (49)
The difference, I think, is that in the US I had to swallow more of my pride. (50)
I had a responsibility to teach them, of course, but I had to do so indirectly -as a guide who himself had a few things to learn from the students.
A Back at Renda, I had walked into my first classes feeling like a celebrity
B In my students' minds, I had little to offer them, except perhaps some sample questions for the mid-term exam.
C In others, the TA works as a grader and discussion leader
D I encountered these in China, and I faced them in the US.
E On the other hand, being taught by a graduate student is not necessarily bad
F Most were polite, or at least, indifferent.
Sharks Perform a Service for Earth's Waters
It is hard to get people to think of sharks as anything but a deadly enemy. They are thought to (51) people frequently. Although these fish perform a valuable (52) for earth's waters and for human beings, business and sport fishing are threatening their (53) . As a result, some sharks are at risk of disappearing from Earth.
Warm weather may influence both fish and shark (54) . Many fish swim near coastal areas because of their (55) waters. Experts say sharks may follow the fish into the same areas, (56) people also swim. In fact, most sharks do not purposely charge at or bite humans. They are thought to mistake a person (57) a sea animal, such as a seal (海豹) or sea lion. That is why people should not swim in the ocean when the sun goes down or comes up, because those are the times when sharks are looking for (58) . Experts also say that bright colors and shiny jewelry (珠宝) may cause sharks to attack.
A shark has an extremely 'good sense of (59) , with which it can find small amounts of substances in water, such as blood, body liquids and chemicals (60) by animals. These powerful senses help sharks find their food. Sharks eat fish, any (61) sharks, and plants that live in the ocean.
Medical researchers want to learn more about the shark's body defense and
immune (免疫的) (62) against disease. Researchers know that sharks (63) quickly from injuries. They study the shark in hopes of finding a way to fight human disease.
Sharks are important for the world's oceans, as they eat injured and diseased fish. Their (64) activities mean that the numbers of other fish in ocean waters do not become too (65) . This protects the plants and other forms of life that exist in the oceans.
53 A existence
54 A intelligence B
55 A fresh
56 A whose
57 A for
58 A help
59 A humor
60 A produced
61 A those
62 A processes
63 A escape
64 A hunting
65 A weak