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2009年全国职称英语考试卫生类A级真题

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作者:佚名    各类考试来源:不详    点击数:    更新时间:2009-12-17

第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

 

 

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1 Why can't you stop your eternal complaining?
  A long
B
everlasting

  C temporary
D
boring


2 Hundreds of buildings were wrecked by the earthquake.
  A damaged
 B
shaken

  C fallen
D
jumped


3 These paintings are considered by many to be authentic.
  A faithful
B
royal

  C sincere
D
genuine


4 Many economists have given in to the fatal lure of mathematics.
  A simplicity
B
attraction

  C power

D
rigor


5 Ten years after the event, her death still remains a puzzle.
  A mist

B
fog

  C secret

D
mystery


6 John was irritated by the necessity for polite conversation.
  A troubled
B
annoyed

  C threatened
D
aroused


7 Academic records cannot be duplicated.
  A borrowed
B
purchased

  C copied
D
rewritten


8 The emphasis on the importance of education has spurred scientific research.
  A encouraged
B
fastened

  C raised
D
initiated


9 We have ample money for the journey.
  A some
 B
little

  C enough

D
extra


10 The doctor's pills worked marvels for me.
  A miracles
B
patients

  C illness
D
recovery


11 Mary's perpetual moaning nearly drove me mad.
  A endless
B
monotonous

  C serious
D
bitter


12 It was hard to say why the man deserved such shabby treatment.
  A old
B
unforgettable

  C unfair
D
funny


13 You didn't adhere to these principles.
  A order
B
follow

  C prove

D
handle


14 The farmers also want to use the water to irrigate the barren land.
  A empty

B
hairless

  C smooth


D
bare


15 Anyone who wants to apply for a loan need read the following specifications.
  A expressions
B
warnings

  C advertisements
D
instructions


第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)
  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

 

 

Cancer Drug Trials Often Halted Early

 

 

 

 


An increasing number of clinical trials for new cancer treatments are being halted before the risks and benefits have been fully evaluated, say Italian researchers, who warn that this growing trend could put patients at risk of harm from new therapies rushed into use.


The researchers looked at 25 randomized, controlled clinical trials that were stopped early because the treatments had started to show benefit to patients.


"When we analyzed 25 trials over a 10-year period between 1997 and 2007, we found a consistent increase in prematurely stopped trials - more than 50 percent were stopped within the last three years," study co-author Giovanni Apolone said at a news conference Tuesday.


Of 14 trials halted early and published between 2005 and 2007, the researchers found that 11 (79 percent) of them were used to support drug approval applications submitted to the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.


"This suggests a strong commercial component in stopping trials prematurely. In fact, this strategy could guarantee quicker access to the market for companies. On the other hand, a quicker clinical drug development may lead to an 'immature' benefit/risk balance of new drugs," Apolone said.


He and his colleagues "are aware that trials stopped early because they are showing benefit may result in identification of promising new treatments for patients. However, findings obtained following this strategy should be considered to be preliminary results that require subsequent confirmation."


It can take several years for the long-term benefits or harmful side effects of a new treatment to become apparent, Apolone noted, but the average duration (
持续时间) of the 25 studies he and his colleagues analyzed was 30 months, with a range from 12 to 64 months.

They also found that at the time five of the studies were stopped, they'd enrolled less than 40 percent of the total number of patients planned for final analysis.


"Clinical trials need to stop early for superior benefit whenever there's proof beyond reasonable doubt that the new treatment really is superior. That would be an ethical obligation," Stuart Pocock, a professor of medical statistics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom, said at the news conference. "However, too many trials are stopped early claiming efficacy (
功效) without strong evidence being available."

16 The number of prematurely stopped clinical trials has increased recently

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned

17 The trials were stopped early because the treatments proved to be of no value

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned

18 The 25 trials involved roughly the same number of participants

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned


19 Some of the trials were probably stopped early for commercial reasons.

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned

20 Participants in the trials were happy when they were stopped early

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned

21 Some of the trials were too short to show their long-term effects

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned

22 Stuart Pocock believed that in no case should clinical trials stop early

A
Right
B
 Wrong
C
Not mentioned


第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)
  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1~4段每段1选择个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。
 

 

Cancer

 

 

 

 

1  Cancer is a group of many related diseases that begin in cells, the body's basic building blocks. The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally cells grow and divide to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. Sometimes, this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should. The extra cells form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. Benign (~良性的) tumors are not cancer. They can often be removed and, in most cases, they do not come back Malignant (恶性的) tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order.
2  Scientists have learned that cancer is caused by changes in genes that normally control the growth and death of cells. Certain lifestyle and environmental factors can change some normal genes into genes that allow the growth of cancer. Many gene
changes that lead to cancer are the result of tobacco use, diet, exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, or exposure to carcinogens (致癌物) in the workplace or in the environment. Some gene alterations are inherited.
3  Cancer treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy (化疗), hormone therapy, and biological therapy. The doctor may use one method or a combination of methods, depending on the type and location of the cancer, whether the disease has spread, the patient's age and general health, and other factors. Because treatment for cancer can also damage healthy cells and tissues, it often causes side effects. Patients and doctors generally discuss the treatment options, weighing the likely benefits of killing cancer cells and the risks of possible side effects.
4  Having cancer does not always mean having pain. Whether a patient has pain may depend on the type of cancer, the extent of the disease, and the patient's tolerance for pain. Most pain occurs when the cancer grows and presses against bones, organs, or nerves. Pain may also be a side effect of treatment. However, pain can generally be relieved or reduced with prescription medicines or over-the-counter drugs recommended by the doctor.

23 Paragraph 1      .
24 Paragraph 2      .
25 Paragraph 3      .
26 Paragraph 4      .
A How is cancer treated?
B Does cancer always cause pain?
C Can cancer be prevented?
D What is cancer?
E How common is cancer?
F What causes cancer?

27 Cancer occurs when cells m the body divide without     
28 Gene alterations may be caused by     
29 Treatment for cancer may also bring about some     
30 Cancer patients may differ in their     
A side effects
B prescription medicines
C control or order
D tolerance for pain
E various factors
F different genes


第4部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)
下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇
 

 

Youth Emancipation in Spain

 



The Spanish Government is so worried about the number of young adults still living with their parents that it has decided to help them leave the nest.


Around 55 percent of people aged 18-34 in Spain still sleep in their parents' homes, says the latest report from the country's state-run Institute of Youth.


To coax (
劝诱) young people from their homes, the Institute started a "Youth Emancipation (解放)" program this month. The program offers guidance in finding rooms and jobs.

Economists blame young people's family dependence on the precarious (
不稳定的) labor market and increasing housing prices. Housing prices have risen 17 percent a year since 2000.

Cultural reasons also contribute to the problem, say sociologists (
社会学家). Family ties in south Europe - Italy, Portugal and Greece - are stronger than those in middle and north Europe, said Spanish sociologist Almudena Moreno Minguez in her report "The Late Emancipation of Spanish Youth: Key for Understanding".

"In general, young people in Spain firmly believe in the family as the main body around which their private life is organized" said Minguez.


In Spain - especially in the countryside, it is not uncommon to find entire groups of aunts, uncles, cousins, nieces and nephews (
外甥/侄子) all living on the same street. They regularly get together for Sunday dinner.

Parents' tolerance is another factor. Spanish parents accept late-night partying and are wary of setting bedtime rules.


"A child can arrive home at whatever time he wants. If parents complain he'll put up a fight and call the father a fascist," said Jose Antonio Gomez Yanez, a sociologist at Carlos I11 University in Madrid.


Mothers' willingness to do children's household chores (
家务) worsens the problem. Dionisio Masso, a 60-year-old in Madrid, has three children in their 20s. The eldest, 28, has a girlfriend and a job. But life with mum is good.

"His mum does the wash and cooks for him; in the end, he lives well," Masso said.

31 The "Youth Emancipation" program alms at helping young people
  A live in an independent way.

B
 fight for freedom.

C
 fight against social injustice.

D
 get rid of family responsibilities,
32 It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that family ties are stronger in Portugal than in

A
 Greece.

B
 Finland.

C
 Spain.

D
 Italy.
33 Young people's family dependence can be attributed to all the following factors EXCEPT

A
 parents' tolerance.

B
 housing problems.

C
 unwillingness to get married

D
 cultural traditions.
34 Which of the following statements is NOT true of Dionisio Masso?

A
 She has a boyfriend.

B
 She is 60 years old.

C
 She has three children

D
 She lives in Madrid
35 The phrase "wary of" m paragraph 8 could be best replaced by

A
 tired of.

B
 afraid of.

C
 worried about.

D
 cautious about.


第二篇
 

 

Surprised by a Miracle

 

 

 

 


I had been working in the trauma unit at a local hospital for about a year. You get used to families thinking that a "coma" (
昏迷) patient is moving their hand or doing something that they were asked to do. "Following commands" is what we call it often it's "wishful thinking" on the families' part. Nurses can easily become
callous (麻木不仁的) to it.

On this particular night during visiting hours, my patient's wife came ~n. I had taken care of him for several nights I was very familiar with his care and what he was able to do. Actually, he didn't do anything. He barely moved at all, even when something would obviously hurt him, such as suctioning (
抽吸)

His wife was very short, about 5 feet tall. She had to stand on a stool to lean over him, so that she could see his face and talk to him. She climbed up on the stool I spoke to her for a few minutes, and then stepped out to tend to my other patient. A few minutes later, she came running out of the room. In an excited voice, she said, "Donna, he's moving his hand!"


I immediately thought that it was probably her imagination, and that he had not actually done it on purpose. He had been there about a month at the time and had never made any movements on purpose. I asked her what had happened and she said, "1 asked him to squeeze my hand and he did!"


This led me to another train of questioning. "But, did he let go when you asked him to?" She said yes, that he had done exactly what she asked


I went into the room with her, not really believing that I would see anything different than I had always seen. But I decided that it would be better to pacify (
抚慰) her than to make her think that I didn't believe her or that she was somehow mistaken.

She asked him to squeeze her hand, which he did.


I said, "Well, ask him to let go." He continued to squeeze for a moment, so that when he finally did let go, I really still didn't believe that he had done it on purpose.


So, I said, "Ask him to hold up one finger." He did as asked.


Well, hmm, this was starting to get my attention. I looked at him, his face still somewhat swollen (
肿胀的) and his eyes still closed. "Stick out your tongue!" I said. He did it. I almost fell on the floor. It was the first time I had ever seen anyone "wake up."

36 The first paragraph indicates that more often than not a coma patient

A
 is found to be following commands.

B
 is callous to nurses' commands.

C
 is thought to be following commands.

D
 is used to following commands.
37 What condition had the patient been in before that particular night?

A
 He had talked only with his wife.

B
 He had moved only when hurt.

C
 He had been too lazy to do anything.

D
 He had barely moved at all
38 How did the author feel upon first hearing what the excited wife said?

A
 She was amused.

B
 She was doubtful.

C
 She was scared.

D
 She was shocked
39 What did the patient do on that particular night?

A
 He squeezed and let go his wife's hand.

B
 He held up one of his fingers.


C
 He stuck out his tongue.


D
 All of the above.
40 Why did the author almost fall on the floor';

A
 Because she had been working too hard.

B
 Because she had been deceived.


C
 Because she could hardly believe her eyes


D
 Because she had been tripped


第三篇
 

 

Slowing Aging: Way to Fight Diseases in 21st Century

 



A group of aging experts from the United States and the United Kingdom suggest that the best strategy for preventing and fighting a multitude of diseases is to focus on slowing the biological processes of aging.


"The traditional medical approach of attacking individual diseases - cancer, diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease (
早老性痴呆病) and Parkinson's disease (帕金森氏病) -will soon become less effective if we do not determine how all of these diseases either interact or share common mechanisms with aging," says S. Jay Olshansky, professor of epidemiology at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health and senior author of the commentary.

Middle-aged and older people are most often impacted by simultaneous but independent medical conditions. A cure for any of the major fatal diseases would have only a marginal impact on life expectancy (
预期寿命) and the length of healthy life, Olshansky said.

The authors suggest that a new paradigm (
模式) of health promotion and disease prevention could produce unprecedented social, economic and health dividends for current and future generations if the aging population is provided with extended years of healthy life.

They note that all living things, including humans, possess biochemical mechanisms that influence how quickly we age and, through dietary (
饮食的) intervention or genetic alteration, it is possible to extend lifespan to postpone aging-related processes and diseases.

Further research in laboratory models is expected to provide clues to and deeper understanding of how existing interventions, such as exercise and good nutrition, may lead to lifelong well-being.


The authors also propose greatly increased funding for basic research into the

"fundamental cellular (细胞的) and physiological changes that drive aging itself."

"We believe that the potential benefits of slowing aging processes have been

underrecognized by most of the scientific community," said Olshansky. "We call on the health-research decision-makers to allocate substantial resources to support and develop practical interventions that slow aging in people."

An increase in age-related diseases and escalating health care costs make this the time for a "systematic attack on aging itself," the authors write.


Olshansky and colleagues contend that modern medicine is already heavily invested in efforts to extend life, and they argue that a fresh emphasis on aging has the potential to improve health and quality of life far more efficiently than is currently possible.


41 The experts believe the traditional approach of attacking individual diseases

A
 is the best strategy for fighting diseases.

B
 focuses on slowing aging processes.

C
 needs to be improved.

D
 has gone out of date.
42 The authors hold a new paradigm of health promotion and disease prevention

A
 may be too expensive.

B
 could have great potential.

C
 might be too complicated.


D
 will be opposed by many people.
43 It is possible to extend lifespan by means of all the following EXCEPT

A
 dietary intervention.

B
 genetic alteration.


C
 exercise.


D
 aging-related processes.
44 The authors argue that more money should be spent on

A
 maintaining the well-being of the elderly.


B
 looking after the sick.


C
 developing aging-slowing interventions.

D
 extending the life of the dying.
45 Which statement is NOT true according to the authors?

A
 There are now more age-related diseases.


B
 Health care costs are on the rise.

C
 Too little has been done to extend life.

D
 A systematic attack on aging is needed.


第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)
  下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。

 

 

My Life at Renda

 

 

 

 


I learned very quickly that being a teaching assistant (TA) at the University of Iowa would be different from being a teacher at Renmin University.

(46) Eyes staring, mouths open, students examined my big nose, while I was writing my name on the blackboard.
At Iowa, when my first classes began, half of my students still hadn't arrived. When everyone finally found a seat, ringing cell-phones and loud yawns (哈欠) interrupted my opening remarks. It is not that American students were disrespectful.                  (47) They were, however, far more skeptical than the students I had at Renda. The truth is I couldn't fault them for their skepticism. Under-graduates at large US universities - especially freshmen and sophomores - often have several classes a semester handled by TAs. In some cases, the TA sets the course content.     (48) Most have good intentions, but very few are as effective as professors.

Every teacher has to confront obstacles to learning - no matter what the culture. Students who talk during lectures, students who cheat, students who question the grade they get for a paper or project - dealing with these is all part of the job.
     (49)

  The difference, I think, is that in the US I had to swallow more of my pride. (50)

I had a responsibility to teach them, of course, but I had to do so indirectly -as a guide who himself had a few things to learn from the students.


A Back at Renda, I had walked into my first classes feeling like a celebrity
B In my students' minds, I had little to offer them, except perhaps some sample questions for the mid-term exam.
C In others, the TA works as a grader and discussion leader
D I encountered these in China, and I faced them in the US
E On the other hand, being taught by a graduate student is not necessarily bad.
F Most were polite, or at least, indifferent


第6部分:完形填空(第51~55题,每题1分,共15分)
下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定一个最佳选项。


 

 

Middle Age: A Low Point for Most

 


People around the globe hit the height of their misery and depression in middle (51)
  , a new international study suggests. The finding by British and American researchers was based on an analysis of well-being among approximately 2 million people in 80 nations. With few exceptions, the observation appears to apply across the board, regardless   (52)   gender (性别), culture, geography, wealth, job history, education, and marriage or parental status.

"The scientific fact seems to be that happiness and positive mental health follow a giant 'U'
  (53)  through life," said study author Andrew J. Oswald, a professor of economics at Warwick University in Warwickshire, England. "For the average person, it's high when you're 20, and then it slowly  (54)  and bottoms out in your 40s. But the good news is that your  (55)  health picks up again, and eventually gets back to the high levels of your youth."

The finding was
  (56)  on the pooling of several different sources of happiness data, including: two multi-decade happiness/satisfaction surveys (first launched in the 1970s), involving about 500,000 American and Western European men
and women; four rounds of the 80-nation "World Values Survey"  (57)  between 1981 and 2004 in North America, Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Central and South America; and a 2004-2007 survey  (58)  nearly 1 million Britons.

The bottom-line: For most people throughout the world, the highest probability for
  (59)  striking is around 44 years of age.

In the United States, however, some as-yet unexplained
  (60)  differences were observed, with happiness among men dipping the most in their early 50s, whereas women hit their nadir (最低点) around the age of 40.

The researchers cautioned that cheerful people tend to live longer than unhappy

(61)  - a fact that might have skewed (使偏斜) the overall finding. But they also suggested that evidence of a happiness  (62)  might simply reflect a midlife choice to give up long-held but no longer tenable (守得住的) aspirations (志向), followed by a senior's sense of gratitude for having successfully endured
  (63)  others did not.


"That said, some might find it helpful simply to understand the general
  (64) of mental health as they go through their own life," said Oswald. "It might
be useful for people to realize that if they are  (65)  in their 40s this is normal. It is not exceptional. And just knowing this might help."

51 A place
B
age
C
height
D
degree

52 A for

B
of

C
to
D
by

53 A color
B
size
C
letter
D
shape

54 A improves
B
moves
C
falls
D
rises

55 A personal
B
mental
C
general
D
physical

56 A focused

B concluded


C
based


D decided

57 A conducted
B
measured
C
checked


D
inspected

58 A calling
B
counting
C
passing


D
involving

59 A depression
B
cancer
C
accident
D
injury

60 A gender

B
race
C
education
D
income

61 A people

B men

C women

D couples

62 A line
B curve

C axis

D table

63 A unless

B
because

C if

D while

64 A moods

B figures
C trends


D views

65 A low

B weird
C
old
D weak

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