|作者：佚名 各类考试来源：网络 点击数： 更新时间：2009-12-19|
Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Say No to Pirated Products. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below。
Useful words and expressions：
知识产权：intellectual property rights
侵犯版权：infringe sb.'s copyright；copyright infringement
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on the Answer Sheet。
For questions I - 4, mark
Y( for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N( for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG( for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage。
For questions 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage。
Tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystem (生态系统) on Earth, and also the oldest. Today, tropical rainforests cover only 6 percent of the Earth's ground surface, but they are home to over half of the planet’s plant and animal species。
What Is a Rainforest?
Generally speaking, a rainforest is an environment that receives high rainfall and is dominated by tall trees. A wide range of ecosystems fall into this category, of course. But most of the time when people talk about rainforests, they mean the tropical rainforests located near the equator。
These forests receive between 160 and 400 inches of rain per year. The total annual rainfall is spread pretty evenly throughout the year, and the temperature rarely dips below 60 degrees Fahrenheit。
This steady climate is due to the position of rainforests on the globe. Because of the orientation of the Earth's axis, the Northern and Southern hemispheres each spend part of the year tilted away from the sun. Since rainforests are at the middle of the globe, located near the equator, they arc not especially affected by this change. They receive nearly the same amount of sunlight, and therefore heat, all year. Consequently, the weather in these regions remains fairly constant。
The consistently wet, warm weather and ample sunlight give plant life everything it needs to thrive. Trees have the resources to grow to tremendous heights, and they live for hundreds, even thousands, of years. These giants, which reach 60 to 150 ft in the air, form the basic structure of the rainforest. Their top branches spread wide in order to capture maximum sunlight. This creates a thick canopy (树冠) level at the top of the forest, with thinner greenery levels underneath. Some large trees grow so tall that they even tower over the canopy layer。
As you go lower, down into the rainforest, you find less and less greenery. The forest floor is made up of moss, fungi, and decaying plant matter that has fallen from the upper layers. The reason for this decrease in greenery is very simple the overabundance of plants gathering sunlight at the top of the forest blocks most sunlight from reaching the bottom of the forest, making it difficult for robust plants to thrive。
The, Forest for the Trees
The ample sunlight and extremely wet climate of many tropical areas encourage the growth of towering trees with wide canopies. This thick top layer of the rainforest dictates the lives of all other plants in the forest. New tree seedlings rarely survive to make it to the top unless some older trees die, creating a "hole" in the canopy. When this happens, all of the seedlings on the ground level compete intensely to reach the sunlight。
Many plant species reach the top of the forest by climbing the tall trees. It is much easier to ascend this way, because the plant doesn't have to form its own supporting structure。
Some plant species, called epiphytes, grow directly on the surface of the giant trees. These plants, which include a variety of orchids and ferns, make up much of the understory, the layer of the rainforest right below the canopy. Epiphytes are close enough to the top to receive adequate light, and the runoff from the canopy layer provides all the water and nutrients(养分)they need, which is important since they don't have access to the nutrients in the ground。
Stranglers and Buttresses
Some epiphytes eventually develop into stranglers. They grow long, thick roots that extend down the tree trunk into the ground. As they continue to grow, the roots form a sort of web structure all around the tree. At the same time, the strangler plant's branches extend upward, spreading out into the canopy. Eventually, the strangler may block so much light from above, and absorb such a high percentage of nutrients from the ground below, that the host tree dies。
Competition over nutrients is almost as intense as competition for light. The excessive rainfall rapidly dissolves nutrients in the soil making it relatively infertile except at the top layers. For this reason, rainforest tree roots grow outward to cover a wider area, rather than downward to lower levels. This makes rainforest trees somewhat unstable, since they don't have very strong anchors in the ground. Some trees compensate for this by growing natural buttresses. These buttresses are basically tree trunks that extend out from the side of the tree and clown to the ground, giving the tree additional support。
Rainforest trees are dependent on bacteria that are continually producing nutrients in the ground. Rainforest bacteria and trees have a very close, symbiotic (共生的) relationship. The trees provide the bacteria with food, in the form of fallen leaves and other material, and the bacteria break this material down into the nutrients that the trees need to survive。
One of the most remarkable things about rainforest plant life is its diversity. The temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest are mainly composed of a dozen or so tree species. A tropical rainforest, on the other hand, might have 300 distinct tree species。
All Creatures, Great and Small
Rainforests are home to the majority of animal species in the world. And a great number of species who now live in other environments, including humans, originally inhabited the rainforests. Researchers estimate that in a large rainforest area, there may be more than 10 million different animal species。
Most of these species have adapted for life in the upper levels of the rainforest, where food is most plentiful. Insects, which can easily climb or fly from tree to tree, make up the largest group (ants are the most abundant animal in the rainforest). Insect species have a highly symbiotic relationship with the plant life in a rainforest. The insects move from plant to plant, enjoying the wealth of food provided there. As they travel, the insects may pick up the plants' seeds, dropping them some distance away. This helps to disperse the population of the plant species over a larger area。
The numerous birds of the rainforest also play a major part in seed dispersal. When they eat fruit from a plant, the seeds pass through their digestive system. By the time they excrete (排泄) the seeds, the birds may have flown many miles away from the fruit-bearing tree。
There are also a large number of reptiles and mammals in the rainforest. Since the weather is so hot and humid during the day, most rainforest mammals are active only at night, dusk or dawn. The many rainforest bat species are especially well adapted for this lifestyle. Using their sonar, bats navigate easily through the mass of trees in the rainforest, feeding on insects and fruit。
While most rainforest species spend their lives in the trees, there is also a lot of life on the forest floor. Great apes, wild pigs, big cats and even elephants can all be found in rainforests. There are a number of people who live in the rainforests, as well. These tribes--which, up until recently, numbered in the thousands--are being forced out of the rainforests at an alarming rate because of deforestation。
In the past hundred years, humans have begun destroying rainforests at an alarming rate. Today, roughly 1.5 acres of rainforest are destroyed every second. People are cutting down the rainforests in pursuit of three major resources:
· land for crops
· lumber for paper and other wood products
· land for livestock pastures
In the current economy, people obviously have a need for all of these resources. But almost all experts agree that, over time, we will suffer much more from the destruction of the rainforests than we will benefit。
The world's rainforests are an extremely valuable natural resource, to be sure, but not for their lumber or their land. They are the main cradle of life on Earth, and they hold millions of unique life forms that we have yet to discover. Destroying the rainforests is comparable to destroying an unknown planet we have no idea what we're losing. If deforestation continues at its current rate, the world's tropical rainforests will be wiped out within 40 years。
1. Virtually all plant and animal species on Earth can be found in tropical rainforests。
2. There is not much change in the weather in the tropical rainforests all the year round。
3. The largest number of rainforests in the world are located on the African continent。
4. Below the canopy level of a tropical rainforest grows an overabundance of plants。
5. New tree seedlings will not survive to reach the canopy level unless ______。
6. Epiphytes, which form much of the understory of the rainforest, get all their water and nutrients from ______。
7. Stranglers are so called because they ______ by blocking the sunlight and competing for the nutrients。
8. Since rainforest bacteria and trees depend on each other for life, the relationship they form is termed ______。
9. Plant species are dispersed over a large area with the help of ______。
10. As we are still ignorant of millions of unique life forms in the rainforest, deforestation can be compared to the destruction of ______。
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A)， B)， C) and D)， and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center。
Questions 11 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard。
11. A) She isn't going to change her major。
B) She plans to major in tax law。
C) She studies in the same school as her brother。
D) She isn't going to work in her brother's firm。
12. A) She will do her best if the job is worth doing。
B) She prefers a life of continued exploration。
C) She will stick to the job if the pay is good。
D) She doesn't think much of job-hopping。
13. A) Stop thinking about the matter。
B) Talk the drug user out of the habit。
C) Be more friendly to his schoolmate。
D) Keep his distance from drug addicts。
14. A) The son. B) The father。
C) The mother. D) Aunt Louise。
15. A) Stay away for a couple of weeks。
B) Check the locks every two weeks。
C) Look after the Johnsons' house。
D) Move to another place。
16. A) He didn't want to warm up for the game。
B) He didn't want to be held up in traffic。
C) He wanted to make sure they got tickets。
D) He wanted to catch as many game birds as possible。
17. A) It will reduce government revenues。
B) It will stimulate business activities。
C) It will mainly benefit the wealthy。
D) It will cut the stockholders' dividends。
18. A) The man should phone the hotel for directions。
B) The man can ask the department store for help。
C) She doesn't have the hotel's phone number。
D) The hotel is just around the corner。
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard。
19. A) To interview a few job applicants。
B) To fill a vacancy in the company。
C) To advertise for a junior sales manager。
D) To apply for a job in a major newspaper。
20. A) A hardworking ambitious young man。
B) A young man good at managing his time。
C) A college graduate with practical working experience。
D) A young man with his own idea of what is important。
21. A) Not clearly specified. B) Not likely to be met。
C) Reasonable enough. D) Apparently sexist。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard。
22. A) The latest developments of an armed rebellion in Karnak。
B) The fall of Karnak's capital city into the hands of the rebel forces
C) The epidemic that has just broken out in the country of Karnak。
D) The peace talks between the rebels and the government in Karnak。
23. A) The epidemic has been brought under control。
B) There are signs of progress in the peace process。
C) Great improvements are being made in its capital。
D) There's little hope of bringing the conflict to an end。
24. A) Late in the morning. B) Early in the afternoon。
C) Sometime before dawn. D) Shortly after sunrise。
25. A) Inadequate medical care. B) Continuing social unrest。
C) Lack of food, water and shelter. D) Rapid spreading of the epidemic。
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end o f each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A)， B)， C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center。
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard。
26. A) One of the bridges between North and South London collapsed。
B) The heart of London was flooded。
C) An emergency exercise was conducted。
D) A hundred people in the suburbs were drowned。
27. A) Fifty underground stations were made waterproof。
B) A flood wall was built。
C) An alarm system was set up。
D) Rescue teams were formed。
28. A) Most Londoners were frightened。
B) Most Londoners became rather confused。
C) Most Londoners took Exercise Floodwall calmly。
D) Most Londoners complained about the trouble caused by Exercise Floodwall。
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard。
29. A) It limited their supply of food. B) It made their eggshells to fragile。
C) It destroyed many of their nests. D) It killed man baby bald eagles。
30. A) They found ways to speed up the reproduction of bald eagles。
B) They developed new types of feed for baby bald eagles。
C) They explored new ways to hatch baby bald eagles。
D) They brought in bald eagles from Canada。
31. A) Pollution of the environment。
B) A new generation of pest killers。
C) Over-killing by hunters。
D) Destruction of their natural homes。
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard。
32. A) Why people hold back their tears。
B) Why people cry。
C) How to restrain one's tears。
D) How tears are produced。
33. A) What chemicals tears are composed of。
B) Whether crying really helps us feel better。
C) Why some people tend to cry more often than others。
D) How tears help people cope with emotional problems。
34. A) Only one out of four girls cries less often than boys。
B) Of four boys, only one cries very often。
C) Girls cry four times as often as boys。
D) Only one out of four babies doesn't cry often。
35. A) Only humans respond to emotions by shedding tears。
B) Only humans shed tears to get rid of imitating stuff in their eyes。
C) Only human tears can resist invading bacteria。
D) Only human tears can discharge certain chemicals。
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered -from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written。
He was a funny-looking man with a cheerful face, good-natured and a great talker. He was (36) by his student, the great philosopher Plato, as "the best and most just and wisest man." Yet this same man was (37) to death for his beliefs by a jury composed of the leading figures of the time in Athens。
The man was the Greek philosopher Socrates, and he was put to death for not believing in the recognized gods and for (38) young people. The second charge steamed from his (39) with numerous young men who came to Athens from all over the (40) world to study under him。
Socrates's method of teaching was to ask questions and, by (41) not to know the answers, to (42) his students into thinking for themselves. His teachings had (43) influence on all the great Greek and Roman schools of philosophy. Yet for all his fame and influence, Socrates himself never wrote a word。
Socrates (44) in Athens. They wanted him silenced. Yet many were probably surprised that he accepted death so readily。
Socrates (45) . But Socrates, as a firm believer in law, reasoned that it was proper to submit to the death sentence. (46) 。
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on the Answer Sheet。
America is a country that now sits atop the cherished myth that work provides rewards, that working people can support their families. It's a myth that has become so divorced from reality that it might as well begin with the words "Once upon a time". Today 1.6 million New Yorkers suffer from "food insecurity", which is a fancy way of saying they don't have enough to eat. Some are the people who come in at night and clean the skyscrapers that glitter along the river. Some pour coffee and take care of the aged parents of the people who live in those buildings. The American Dream for the well-to-do grows from the bowed backs of the working poor, who too often have to choose between groceries and rent。
In a new book called "The Betrayal of Work", Beth Shulman says that even in the booming 1990s one out of every four American workers made less than $8. 70 an hour, an income equal to the government's poverty level for a family of four. Many, if not most, of these workers had no health care, sick pay or retirement provisions。
We ease our consciences, Shulman writes, by describing these people as "low skilled", as though they're not important or intelligent enough to deserve more. But Iow-skilled workers today are better educated than ever before, and they constitute the linchpin (SYNC) of American industry. When politicians crow (得意洋洋地说) that happy days are here again because jobs are on the rise, it's these jobs they're really talking about. Five of the 10 occupations expected to grow big in the next decade are in the lowest-paying job groups. And before we sit back and decide that's just the way it; is, it's instructive to consider the rest of the world. While the bottom 10 percent of American workers earn just 37 percent of our average wage, their counterparts in other industrialized countries earn upwards of 60 percent. And those are countries that provide health care and child care, which eases the economic pinch considerably。
Almost 40 years ago, when Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty, a family with a car and a house in the suburbs felt prosperous. Today that same family may well feel poor, overwhelmed by credit card debt, a second mortgage and the cost of the stuff that has become the backbone of American life. When the middle Class feels poor, the poor have little chance for change, or even recognition。
47. By saying "it might as well begin with the words 'Once upon a time'"(Line 3,Para. 1)， the author suggests that the American myth is ______。
48. What is the American Dream of the well-to-do built upon?
49. Some Americans try to make themselves feel less guilty by attributing the poverty of the working people to ______。
50. We learn from the passage that the difference in pay between the lowest paid and the average worker in America is ______ than. that in other industrialized countries。
51. According to the author, how would an American family with a car and a house in the suburbs probably feel about themselves today?
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A)， B)， C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center。
As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn't the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, hut a fact of Europe's new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, real- estate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the "irresistible momentum of individualism" over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on (扰乱) Europeans' private lives。
Europe's new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe's shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American-style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today's tech-savvy (精通技术的) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so。
Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriage-- twenty something professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone。
The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn't leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in Paris, says he hasn't got time to get lonely because he has too much work. "I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult. "Only an ideal woman would make him change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called "The Single Woman and Prince Charming," thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don't last long if they start at all. Eppendorf a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she'd never have wanted to do what her mother did give up a career to raise a family. Instead, "I've always done what I wanted to do：live a self- determined life."
52. More and more young Europeans remain single because?
A) they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism
B) they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age
C) they have embraced a business culture of stability
D) they are pessimistic about their economic future
53. What is said about European society in the passage?
A) It has fostered the trend towards small families。
B) It is getting closer to American style capitalism。
C) It has limited consumer choice despite a free market。
D) It is being threatened by irresistible privatization。
54. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are ______。
A) warm and light hearted B) on either side of marriage
C) negative and gloomy D) healthy and wealthy
55. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that ______。
A) some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom
B) the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe
C) some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely
D) most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable
56. What is the author's purpose in writing the passage?
A) To review the impact of women becoming high earners。
B) To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism。
C) To examine the trend of young people living alone。
D) To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships。
Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified(GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released。
The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organizations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her。
But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. "They're trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired," Ingham told New Scientist。
The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand's Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week。.
"We would lose terrestrial(陆生的)plants... this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings," she told the commission. She added that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999.
But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of "presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information" and "generating speculative doomsday scenarios (世界末日的局面)that are not scientifically supportable". They say that her study doesn't even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What's more, the network says that contrary to Ingham's claims, the EPA. was never asked to consider the organism for field trials。
The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA's bio pesticides (生物杀虫剂)division, says "there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test"。
Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It's also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use。
Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her。
"I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn't be harassed in this way," says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. "It's an attempt to silence the opposition."
57. The passage centers on the controversy ______。
A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification
B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued
C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants
D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university
58. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on ______。
A) evidence provided by the EPA of the United States
B) the results of an experiment she conducted herself
C) evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists
D) the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon
59. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA ______。
A) has canceled its approval for field tests of the GM organism
B) hasn't reviewed the timings of Ingham's research
C) has approved field tests using the GM organism
D) hasn't given permission to field test the GM organism
60. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network ______。
A) should gather evidence to discredit Ingham's claims
B) should require that the research by their biologists be regulated
C) shouldn't demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views
D) shouldn't appease the opposition in such a quiet way
61. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE?
A) Her testimony hasn't been supported by the EPA。
B) Her credibility as a scientist hasn't been undermined。
C) She is firmly supported by her university。
D) She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria。
Part Ⅴ Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash (—) in the blank。
The Seattle Times company is one newspaper firm that has
recognized the need for change and done something about it. In the
newspaper industry, papers must reflect the diversity of the communities
to which they provide information. It must reflect that diversity with their 62. ______。
news coverage or risk losing their readers' interest and their advertisers'
support. Operating within Seattle, which has 20 percents racial 63. ______。
minorities, the paper has put into place policies and procedures for hiring
and maintain a diverse workforce. The underlying reason for the change is 64. ______。
that for information to be fair, appropriate, and subjective, it should be 65. ______。
reported by the same kind of population that reads it。
A diversity committee composed of reporters, editors, and
photographers meets regularly to value the Seattle Times' content and to 66. ______。
educate the rest of the newsroom staff about diversity issues. In an 67. ______。
addition, the paper instituted a content audit (审查) that evaluates the
frequency and manner of representation of woman and people of color in 68. ______。
photographs. Early audits showed that minorities were pictured far too
infrequently and were pictured with a disproportionate number of negative
articles. The audit has resulted from improvement in the frequency of 69. ______。
majority representation and their portrayal in neutral or positive 70. ______。
situations. And, with a result, the Seattle Times has improved as a 71. ______。
newspaper. The diversity training and content audits helped the Seattle
Times Company to win the Personnel Journal Optimas Award for
excellence in managing change。
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the following sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets。
72. It was essential that __________________________ (我们在月底前签订合同)。
73. To our delight, she __________________________ (进大学一个月就适应了校园生活)。
74. The new government was accused __________________________ (未实现其降低失业率的承诺)。
75. The workmen think __________________________ (遵守安全规则很重要)。
76. The customer complained that no sooner __________________________ (他刚试着使用这台机器，它就不运转了)。
Part I Sample Writing
Say No to Pirated Products
Nowadays, the problem of piracy has become more and more serious. Books, tapes, VCDs and others high-tech products have been pirated. For instance, When a new product comes onto market, most probably, its pirated counterpart will soon put on its appearance in the market, too。
Piracy has caused a great loss to legitimate producers, inventors and writers in many ways. To start with, the pirated products often cost much less than the genuine ones so that they enjoy a better trading position in spite of their relatively poor quality. The genuine products, on the contrary, sell poorly. What's worse, pirated books sometimes do great harm to the authors' reputation due to some misprints. In the long run, pirated products may have a negative impact on customers. Those legitimate producers' creativity and enthusiasm may be deeply hurt by the fact that some customers are more interested in the pirated products for the sake of small gains。
In my opinion, it's high time that everyone started the battle against piracy. First, customers should develop their consciousness to resist the pirated products. Second, the government should take effective measures to put an end to piracy. Finally, laws must be strictly enforced to completely, ban piracy. Only in this way can we wipe the pirated products out of our life。
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1. N 2. Y 3. NG 4. N
5. some older trees die
6. the canopy layer
7. kill the host tree
9. insects and birds/insects/birds/animals
10. an unknown planet
Part III Listening Comprehension
11--15 DBDCA 16--20 CCACA 21--25 BADCC
26--30 CBCBD 31--35 DBDCA
36. described 37. condemned 38. corrupting 39. association
40. civilized 41. pretending 42. press 43. unsurpassed
44. encouraged new ideas and free thinking in the young, and this was frightening to the conservatives
45. had the right to ask for a less severe penalty, and he probably could have persuaded the jury to change the verdict
46. So he calmly accepted his fate and drank a cup of poison in the presence of his grief-stricken friends and students
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
47. divorced from reality/unrealistic
48. The backbreaking labor of the working poor. /The bowed backs of the working poor。
49. (their) lack of skill/(their)low skill
50. much greater
52--56 ABDAC 57--61 CBDCA
Part Ⅴ Error Correction
62. It→They 63. percents→percent
64. maintain→maintaining 65. subjective→objective
66. value→evaluate 67. 删除 an
68. woman→women 69. from→in
70. majority→minority 71. with→as
Part Ⅵ Translation
72. we sign the contract before the end of the month
73. adapted (herself) to campus life a month after entering college
74. of failure to fulfill its promise to reduce the unemployment rate
75. it very important to comply with/follow the safety regulations
76. had he tried to use the machine than it stopped working
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1. N 第一段第二句“Today, tropical rainforests cover only 6 percent of the Earth's ground surface，but they are home to over half of the planet's plant and animal species”中提到，热带雨林占全球面积的6%，却拥有超过地球一半以上的动植物种类。这句话表明，不是所有动植物物种都能在热带雨林中找到，比如很多海洋生物就不能在热带雨林中找到。
2.根据“What Is a Rainforest?”部分第三段中的“Since rainforests are at the middle of the globe，located near the equator，they are not especially affected by this change.They receive nearly the same amount of sunlight，and therefore heat，all year.Consequently，the weather in these regions remains fairly constant”，此说法是正确的。
4.由“What Is a Rainforest?”部分最后一段中的两句话“As you go lower，down into the rainforest，you find less and less greenery。”和“The overabundance of plants gathering sunlight at the top of the forest blocks most sunlight from reaching the bottom of the forest，making it difficult, for robust plants to thrive。”可见，由于浓密的树冠层挡住了大部分阳光，地面的植被并不茂盛。所以，题中说法是错误的。
5.“The Forest for the Trees”部分第一段中的“New tree seedlings rarely survive to make is to the top unless some older trees die，creating a “hole” in the canopy。”因此，答案是“some older trees die”。只有老树死亡后，新的树苗才能成活，向上生长，到达树冠层。
6.“The Forest for the Trees”部分最后一段中提到“Epiphytes are close enough to the top to receive adequate light，and the runoff from the canopy layer provides all the water and nutrients they need，which is important since they don't have access to the nutrients in the ground。”可见为附生植物提供水和养分的是树冠层。故正确答案为“the canopy layer”。
7.由“Strangler and Buttresses”部分的第一段最后一句“Eventually，the strangler may block so much light from above，and absorb such a high percentage of nutrients from the ground below， that the host tree dies。”可见附生植物最终导致宿主树木死亡。故答案为“kill the host tree”。
8.由“Strangler and Buttresses”部分的第三段中的“Rainforest bacteria and trees have a very close，symbiotic relationship.The trees provide the bacteria with fond，in the form of fallen leaves and other material，and the bacteria break this material down into the nutrients that the trees need to survive。”可知树木为细菌提供食物，细菌则分解这些东西，反过来为树木提供养分。它们之间是密切的共生关系。故答案为“symbiotic”。
9.由“All Creatures，Great and Small”部分第二段“As they travel，the insects may pick up the plants' seeds，dropping them some distance away。”和第三段“This helps to disperse the population of the plant species over a larger area.By the time they excrete the seeds，the birds may have flown many miles away from the fruit-bearing tree，”可见昆虫和鸟类都能帮助植物传播种子。雨林中生活的大量动物其实也帮助植物传播种子。所以，答案可以是“insects and birds/insects/birds/animals”。
10.由“Deforestation”部分的最后一段“Destroying the rainforests is comparable to destroying an unknown planet—we have no idea what we're losing。”可知正确答案为“an unknown planet”。
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension(听力原文在光盘中)
Tape Script of Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A)， B)， C) and D)， and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center。
11. M: Congratulations! I just heard about your acceptance into law school. Do you think you will join your brother's firm after graduation?
W: Not likely. He is a tax lawyer and I'm going to major in criminal law。
Q: What does the woman mean?
12. M: Jenny, remember this: A job worth doing at all is worth doing well。
W: Oh, yes. I certainly won't forget it. But don't expect me to stick to the job just because it pays a few more bucks. A life of continued exploration is a life worth living!
Q: What can be inferred about the woman from the conversation？
13. M: I found that one of my schoolmates uses drugs. How could I help him, Mom?
W: Stay away from him, son. Never think that you can talk him out of the habit if he is addicted. But perhaps you can talk to your teacher about the matter。
Q: What's the woman's advice to her son?
14. W: I don't know how you can eat so much yet never put on any weight, son. Your father's got the same luck. I can't take a bite without calculating how many calories I'm taking。
M: But remember Aunt Louise, Mum? She ate a lot and never gained a pound。
Q: Who is worried about gaining weight?
15. W: Did you turn off the lights and check the locks on all the doors?
M: Yes. I told the Johnsons we'd be gone for two weeks. They promised to keep an eye on the house for us。
Q: What are the two speakers going to do?
16. M: Hurry up, Linda. I hear that there aren't many tickets left for the football match。
W: I'm ready now. Let's go. It's the early bird that catches the worm。
Q: Why did the man ask the woman to hurry up?
17. M: What do you think of the government's new tax-cut proposal?
W: Though it may give some benefit to the poor, its key component is the elimination of tax on dividends. That means the rich will get richer。
Q: What does the woman think of the government's tax-cut proposal?
18. M: Excuse me, but could you tell me how to get to the Friendship Hotel? I thought it was on this corner, but I seem to have made a mistake。
W: I'm sorry, but I'm a stranger here myself. Maybe you can try calling them. There is a phone over there outside the department store。
Q: What does the woman mean?
Now you’ll hear two long conversations。
M: Morning, Brenda。
W: Good morning, Mr. Browning。
M: Er, did you, did you put that ad in yesterday?
W: Yes, yesterday afternoon。
M: The ad for a junior sales manager, I mean。
W: Yes, it went into the Standard and the Evening News。
M: That's good. Erm, well.。.
W: What kind of person have you got in mind for this job?
M: Oh, well, somebody fairly young, you know, twenty something, like 21, or 25. A man, I think。
W: A man?
M: We really need a man for the position. Yes, I mean, it's really too demanding. The sort of situations they get into are much too difficult for a young woman to handle with, erm.。.
W: Erm, what sort of a young man have you got in mind?
M: Oh, you know, a good education, polite, responsible, and easy to get along with. What I don't want is one of those young men just out of university, with exaggerated ideas of his own importance。
W: Yes, erm, what sort of education are you looking for?
M: Well, you know, a couple of A levels. Must have English, of course。
W: Yes, I think you're asking quite a lot. I mean you're not really prepared to pay all.。.
M: No, I'm not prepared to give him a big salary to start with. Nevertheless, I want someone with plenty of ambition, plenty of drive. You know, not looking at the clock all the time。
W: Well sir, I wish you the best of luck and hope you have some very successful interviews。
M : Well, yes?
W: Because personally I think you're asking an awful lot。
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard。
19. What did Mr. Browning ask Brenda to do?
20. What kind of person will meet the job requirements?
21. What does Brenda think of the qualifications Mr. Browning insists on?
W: We now interrupt our regular scheduled news program to bring you live up-to-date coverage on the civil unrest in the newly formed country of Karnak, where our man Stan Fielding is stationed. Stan.。.
M: This is Stan Fielding reporting live from the suburbs of the capital city. Just 20 minutes ago, rebel forces launched the biggest offensive against the ruling government in the 18-month conflict here in this country。
W: Now Stan, is this a sign that the peace process has been totally abandoned?
M: Well, so far, peace negotiations have failed, and any resolution to end the civil war appears bleak at this moment. As you can see... Whoa。
W: Stan, Stan, are you there?
M: Uh, yes, Shelly. As you can probably hear behind me, rebel forces are also using heavy artillery to pound the positions of government forces around the city center. Rebel forces are closing in, and it's feared that they will be able to take the capital building before daybreak where, it is believed, many government officials are holding out。
W: Now, besides the heavy fighting, what other pressing concerns are there for the citizens of the city?
M: Well, since the beginning of the conflict, starvation, and lack of clean water and adequate shelter have been the biggest daily obstacles facing the citizens of this war-torn country. It is believed that over 40,000 people, mostly children, have starved to death. Fortunately, no epidemics have broken out, but that is always a concern if this war lingers on。
W: Okay, that was Stan Fielding reporting. And we will keep you up-to-date as this story continues to unfold。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard。
22. What is the news coverage mainly about?
23. What does the reporter Stan Fielding say about the situation in Karnak?
24. At what time of day do you think this news report is being made?
25. What is the pressing concern for the citizens of Karnak?
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A)， B)， C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center。
A few months ago, millions of people in London heard alarms all over the town. Emergency services, the fire department, the police, hospitals and ambulances stood by, ready to go into action. In railway and underground stations, people read notices and maps, which told them where to go and what to do in the emergency. This was Exercise Floodcall to prepare people for a flood emergency. London wasn't flooded yet. But it is possible that it could be。
In 1236 and 1663 London was badly flooded. In 1928 people living in Westminster, the heart of London, drowned in floods. And in 1953, a hundred people living on the eastern edge of the London suburbs were killed – again, in the floods. At last, Greater London Council took action to prevent this disaster from happening again. Though a flood wall was built in the 1980s, Londoners still must be prepared for the possible disaster. If it happens, fifty underground stations will be underwater. Electricity, gas and phone services will be out of action. Roads will be drowned. It will be impossible to cross any of the bridges between North and South London. Imagine – London will look like the famous Italian city, Venice。
But this Exercise Floodcall didn't cause panic among Londoners. Most people knew it was just a warning. One lady said, "It's a flood warning, isn't it? The water doesn't look high to me。”
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard。
26. What happened in London a few months ago?
27. What measure was taken against floods in London in the 1980s?
28. What can we learn from the lady's comment?
America's national symbol, the bald eagle, almost went extinct 20 years ago. But it has made a comeback. In fact, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is considering the possibility of taking it off the endangered-species list。
Once, more than 50,000 pairs of bald eagles nested across the country. But by 1960, that number had fallen below 400.
The chief killer was the widely used DDT. Fish soaked up DDT, died, and were washed up on shores, where bald eagles feasted on them. DDT prevented eagle eggshells from thickening. The shells became so thin that they shattered before the babies hatched。
Fortunately, in 1972, a law was passed to ban DDT, which saved the bald eagle from total wipeout. And since then, wildlife biologists have reintroduced bald eagles from Canada to America. The result was that last year U. S. birdwatchers counted 11, 610 bald eagles in the country。
If it were dropped from the endangered list, the bald eagle would still be a " threatened species。” That means the bird would continue to get the same protection - no hunting allowed, and no disturbing of nests。
But bald eagles still face tough times. The destruction of their natural homes could be the next DDT causing eagle numbers to drop quickly。
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard。
29. What was the main harmful effect of the pest killer DDT on bald eagles?
30. What measure did the wildlife biologists take to increase the number of bald eagles?
31. According to the speaker, what is the possible danger facing bald eagles?
Why do we cry? Can you imagine life without tears?
Not only do tears keep your eyes lubricated, they also contain a substance that kills certain bacteria so they can't infect your eyes. Give up your tears and you lose this on-the-spot defence。
Nor would you want to give up the flood of extra tears you produce when you get something physical or chemical in your eyes. Tears are very good at washing this irritating stuff out。
Another thing you couldn't do without your tears is cry - from joy, anger, or sadness。
Humans are the only animals that produce tears in response to emotions. And most people say a good cry makes them feel better。
Many scientists, therefore, believe that crying somehow helps us cope with emotional situations. Tear researcher William Frey is trying to figure out how it happens。
One possibility, he says, is that tears discharge certain chemicals from your body, chemicals that build up during stress. "When people talk about 'crying it out,' I think that might actually be what they are doing," he says。
If Frey is right, what do you think will happen to people who restrain their tears? Boys, for example, cry only about a quarter as often as girls once they reach their teenage years. And we all cry a lot less now than we did as babies。
Could it possibly be that we face less stress? Maybe we've found other ways to deal with it. Or maybe we just feel embarrassed。
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard。
32. What's the topic discussed in this passage?
33. What is William Frey trying to find out?
34. What does the passage say about teenage boys and girls?
35. What's the difference between human beings and other animals when shedding tears?
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written。
He was a funny-looking man with a cheerful face, good-natured and a great talker. He was described by his student, the great philosopher Plato, as "the best and most just and wisest man。” Yet this same man was condemned to death for his beliefs by a jury composed of the leading figures of the time in Athens。
The man was the Greek philosopher Socrates, and he was put to death for not believing in the recognized gods and for corrupting young people. The second charge stemmed from his association with numerous young men who came to Athens from all over the civilized world to study under him。
Socrates’ method of teaching was to ask questions and, by pretending not to know the answers, to press his students into thinking for themselves. His teachings had unsurpassed influence on all the great Greek and Roman schools of philosophy. Yet for all his fame and influence, Socrates himself never wrote a word。
Socrates encouraged new ideas and free thinking in the young, and this was frightening to the conservatives in Athens. They wanted him silenced. Yet many were probably surprised that he accepted death so readily。
Socrates had the right to ask for a less severe penalty, and he probably could have persuaded the jury to change the verdict. But Socrates, as a firm believer in law, reasoned that it was proper to submit to the death sentence. So he calmly accepted his fate and drank a cup of poison in the presence of his grief-stricken friends and students。
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)
47.文章一开始作者讲到美国人一直相信这样一个神话：只要工作就有回报，工作的人完全可以养家。但紧接着作者说“It's a myth that has become so divorced from reality that it might as well begin with the words‘Once upon a time。”(这个神话和现实有如此大的差距以至于我们在这么说之前得加上“很久很久以前……”。)所以本题可以填写原文中的原词“divorced from reality”。这样要填写的句子的意思就符合原文了，作者说“我们最好在前面加上很久很久以前”，暗示美国神话已经脱离了现实。基于对这部分意思的理解，也可以填写“unrealistic”，表示这一神话般的说法是不现实的。
48.第一段最后一句“The American Dream for the well-to-do grows from the bowed backs of the working poor，who too often have to choose between groceries and rent。”中的grows from和问题中的is built upon是一个意思。因此，本题可以用“The bowed backs of the working poor，”来回答，也可以基于理解，回答成“The backbreaking labor of the working labor”。
49.第三段第一句“We ease our consciences，Shulman writes，by describing these people as ‘low skilled，’ as though they're not important or intelligent enough to deserve more。”中的“ease our consciences”就是“减轻负疚感”的意思。因此只要回答归咎于劳动者“技能低下”就可以了。原文用的是形容词“low skilled”，题目中在介词to后用名词。因此答案可以是“(their)lack of skill”或者“(their) low skill”。
50.第三段倒数第二句，“While the bottom 10 percent of American workers earn just 37 percent of our average wage，their，counterparts in other industrialized countries earn upwards of 60 percent。”中提到美国工资最低的10%的劳动者的收入占美国人均收入的37%，而在其他工业国家，这类劳动者的收入达到这些国家平均收入的60%。由此可见，美国劳动者的最低收入和人均收入的差距要比其他工业国家的大很多。因此，正确答案为“much greater”。
51.文章最后一段说“Almost 40 years ago，when Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty，a family with a car and a house in the suburbs felt prosperous.Today that same family may well feel poor.。.”。可见正确答案是“Poor”。
52.因果推断题。由第一段前两句“Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age... The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle...is part of the‘irresistible momentum of individualism’”可知欧洲年轻人选择单身是个人主义使然，他们向往自由、向往个性因而选择single。
53.根据文中第二段开头“Europe...trend toward independence...shift from social democracy to the sharper，more individualistic climate of American-style capitalism。”可以判断应该选择B项。
54.细节推断题。根据第三段中“the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice...They were young，beautiful， strong! Now，young people want to live alone。”，可以推断the newest group of singles are high earners and strong，即 healthy and wealthy。
55.例证题。根据文章最后部分“Eppendorf...teaches grade school in the mornings.In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps，resting up for going dancing...she says she'd never...-- give up a career to raise a family.Instead.‘I've always done what I wanted to do：live a self- determined life.’”。可以推断现代的女性更喜欢个人的、独立的生活。
56.写作目的题。认真阅读文章前两句，就可以看出作者的keynote：“...we are all ultimately a lone. But an increasing number... are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age”，第三段再次提到“the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice....came along the idea of singles.They were young，beautiful，strong! Now，young people want to live alone”。因此，正确答案为C项。
57.主旨题。第一段提及“Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct...genetically modified (GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released”，即一位美国科学家认为GM细菌一旦释放即可能造成严重损害，而支持GM(pro- GM)的则认为对方发言“exaggerated and irresponsible”。第四段直接指出“The controversy began.。.”，由此可以推断本文主要讲述双方针对GM细菌是否会造成严重损害，各执一词。
58.细节推断题。根据文章第四段末“Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants，all of the plants died within a week。”以及第五段后半部分“She added that...canceled its approval for field tests...once she had told them about her research in 1999.”可推断是 Ingham自己做试验来印证她的观点。 59.细节判断题。根据第七段“The EPA has not commented on the dispute.But…Janet Anderson，director of the EPA...says‘there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test’。”由此可以看出EPA没有field test的记录，也没有审核，消除field test的记录，意思是与该争论划清界限，表示并没有授权进行GM field test，也没有参与。
60.推断题。根据第十段…I think her concerns should be taken seriously.She shouldn't be harassed in this way，’says Ann Clarke...‘It's an attempt to silence the opposition.’”，Ann Clarke认为Ingham的担忧应该被慎重对待，反对她的人不应该通过起诉来骚扰她，反对者这么做是想让她对此事保持沉默。由此推断，Ann Clarke认为Ingham的观点应该被重视 (先甭管对否)，通过试验或其他方式来论证，而不是通过法律强制手段让她对此事保持沉默。
Part Ⅴ Error Correction
68.此处与后文的people of color(有色人种)一样，都是以复数形式来泛指这一类群的人，因此woman应改为复数形式women。
69.此处考查词组的使用。result from表示“因……而引起”，而result in表示“导致，造成”。本句的上下文语意为“早期的审查表明少数人群的报道频率过低而且被描述成负面文章，且这些文章的数量极其失衡。审查使得少数人群提高了报道频率并改善了他们在中性和正面报道情况下的形象”。因此，result from不符合句意。
71.固定用法，词组as a result，表示“结果”。
Part Ⅵ Translation
72.[注释] 本句的翻译难点在短语“签订合同(sign the contract)”上。
73.[注释] 本句考查的翻译语言点为“适应”，即adapt to，类似的表达如get accustomed to也是正确的。但在校园生活一词的翻译上，可能出现的错误译法是university life。
74.[注释] 此句考查的语言点有多个。首先必须与主干谓语动词accused保持词组使用的准确性，即accuse...of词组的搭配使用。其次，在介词of后必须接名词性的介词宾语，“无法实现”既可以翻译成failure to fulfill也可以相应翻译成failing to fulfill。最后，句子中“失业率”的准确译文应为unemployment rate。
75.[注释]：本句翻译中要注意it作为形式宾语的用法。其次，“遵守”的译文可以是正式语体中的comply with，也可以是常规词follow。“安全规则”既可以翻译为safety regulations也可以是safety rules。
76.[注释] 本句翻译的关键是句型“no sooner...than.。.”，表示“刚……就”，同时在no sooner紧接的从句中应使用倒装。由于抱怨的内容发生在抱怨之前，因此no sooner从句中谓语动词必须为过去分词形式。
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