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2018高考英语复习方法--动词的3个考查角度、13组高频短语记忆、5组近义词辨析及动词考法(附答案)

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2018高考英语复习方法--动词的3个考查角度、13组高频短语记忆、5组近义词辨析及动词考法(附答案)

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第6讲 动词的3个考查角度、13组高频短语记忆、5组近义词辨析及动词考法
备考指导 对于动词的考查一定是从以下几个角度:(1)从语法(时态、语态、语气等)的角度考查;(2)从单词词义辨析的角度考查;(3)从短语词义辨析的角度考查:①同一个动词后跟不同的介词或副词的考查;②不同的动词后跟同一个介词或副词的考查。
一、以get为例掌握高考考查动词时的三个角度
1.从语法的角度考查get的相关知识
(1)get+宾语+to do叫(请、说服)某人做某事
I’ll get more men to do it.
我多叫几个人做此事。
Be sure to get Mr.White to come here.
一定请怀特先生来。
(2)get+宾语+过去分词
弄得(使得)某事完成(自己也可能参与)
She got a new coat made.
她定做了一件新大衣。
Let’s get this matter cleared up.
咱们把这件事情弄清楚吧。
(3)get+宾语+现在分词
使……在某种状态中(相当于keep...doing)
The lecture got us thinking.
这次演讲使我们深思。
Can you get the clock going again?
你能让这个钟再走起来吗?
(4)get+过去分词(构成被动,着重于动作)受,被
He got dismissed because of his laziness.
由于懒惰他被开除了。
I got acquainted with him when he was in high school.
我在中学时期就认识了他。
(5)(口语)Got it!明白!
You’ve got me!这下可把我难住了!
2.从词汇的角度考查get的相关知识(1)
get+不同的介词(副词)
get along/on with与……和睦相处,进展
get about(消息)传开,传出来;走动,到处跑,旅游
get across(使)通过;(使)被理解,(把……)讲清楚
get away with侥幸做成
get down to sth.开始做某事
3.从词汇的角度考查get的相关知识(2)
不同的动词+同一个介词(副词)
get through用完;顺利通过;接通电话
break through突破,突围
see through看透,看穿,看破
look through审核,仔细查看;透过……看;浏览,快速查看
go through仔细讨论;仔细查看;经历,经过;用完,通过
pull through(使)度过危机,(使)度过危险
二、运用归类识记法牢记13组高考高频动词短语
1.break短语
break away (from sb./sth.)脱离,逃脱,甩掉
break one’s word食言
break out爆发,突然开始
break down机器、车辆等坏掉;使分解
break in插话;强行进入
break into强行闯入;突然开始
break up粉碎;关系破裂;垮掉
2.bring短语
bring forth生产
bring forward将……提前;提议
bring down降低;打落
bring in赚得;提出;引进
bring up抚养;提出;呕吐
3.call短语
call at someplace拜访某地
call on sb.拜访某人
call for需要,要求;接
call on/upon sb.to do sth.请求某人做某事
4.take短语
take away带走;解除
take off脱下;起飞;迅速流行
take on雇用;呈现
take in收留;欺骗;理解;包含
take down写下;拆掉
take up开始从事;占据
take part in参加
take pride in为……感到骄傲
take place发生
take the place of替代
take care of照顾
take action采取行动
take measures/steps采取措施
5.give短语
give in投降,让步
give up放弃,投降
give out散发,耗尽
give off发出光、热、气味等
give away分发,送给
6.go短语
go out送出;熄灭
go with sth.附属于;同意
go mad发疯
go bad变坏,变质
go against违背
go on继续
7.hold短语
hold back隐瞒;阻挡,抑制
hold on坚持,等着;不要挂掉电话
hold up耽搁;支持住
8.keep短语
keep back保持距离;抑制感情等的流露;隐瞒
keep off回避某话题;使……不接近
keep away from远离
keep up with sth.熟悉;继续支付
keep up with sb.与某人保持联系
keep on继续
keep a record保持纪录
keep one’s promise遵守诺言
keep an eye on照看,留神,留意
9.look短语
look after照顾,照料
look around/round环顾四周
look down on看不起,鄙视
look for寻找;期待
look out小心
look forward to sth./doing sth.盼望,期待
look up好转;抬头往上看;查阅
look into调查
10.make短语
make up化妆;组成;编造
make up for弥补
be made up of由……组成/构成
make out理解,看清
make full/good use of充分利用
make friends with与……交朋友
make fun of取笑
make room for给……让出空间
make an apology to给……道歉
make preparations for为……作准备
make the bed铺床
make a living谋生
make money赚钱
make peace讲和
make tea沏茶
11.put短语
put away把……放回原处;积蓄
put up提升;张贴;建立;投宿
put down写下;放下;镇压
put out生产;扑灭;出版
put off取消;使反感
put on穿上;上演;增加体重
put up with sb./sth.容忍
12.set短语
set about开始做;攻击
set out动身;开始工作
set off出发;使爆炸;引起
set up建立
set fire to sth./set sth.on fire放火烧……
set an example to为……树立榜样
13.turn短语
turn to翻到;向……求助
turn in上交;取得
turn on打开;取决于;突然攻击
turn off关掉;不再听
turn up偶然出现;把声音调高
turn down把声音调低;拒绝
turn out结果是;出席
take an exam参加考试,相当于sit an exam
take one’s advice听从劝告
take it for granted (that...)把……看成是理所当然的事
take sb./sth.seriously严肃对待某人/某事
take...for example以……为例
三、运用语境记忆法掌握5组近义词
1.afford,cost,pay,spend,take
afford表示“买得起;有时间做”,可以指费用、时间等,常用于afford sth.和afford to do sth.结构;其他四个词都有“花费”之意,其中cost指“需付费”,常用于cost sb.sth.结构;pay常指“付多少钱”,常用于pay (sb.)for sth.结构;spend指“花时间或钱”,常用于sb.+spend+时间/钱+on sth./(in) doing sth.结构;take常用于It takes sb.+时间+to do sth.结构。如:
We cannot afford to pay such a price.
我们付不起这个价钱。
The new computer costs him around  1,000.
(cost的主语一般是物,且没有被动结构)这台新电脑花费了他将近1 000美元。
Who will pay for the meal?
谁为这顿饭付账?
Every day he spent twenty minutes (in) talking to the boy.
他每天花20分钟的时间跟这个男孩谈话。
It took us a lot of time to finish the work.
完成这项工作花了我们很多时间。
2.take part in,join in,join,attend
它们都有“参加”之意。take part in意为“参加,参与(某事或某活动)”;join in意为“参加”,后面接的宾语一般是表示竞赛、娱乐、游戏等活动的名词或动名词;join指“加入”某个团体、组织;attend强调“出席”,如attend a meeting/concert,attend classes/school/a lecture等。如:
It is useful to take an active part in after­school activities.
积极参加课外活动是有益的。
Please join us and play together!
加入我们一起玩吧!
Last Saturday all of us attended his wedding.
上个星期六,我们都参加了他的婚礼。
He never joined in the usual sports of the boys.
他从不参加男孩们的一般活动。
3.hurt,wound,injure,destroy
(1)hurt表示“伤害”的一般用词,既可以指“对肉体的伤害”,也可以指“对精神的伤害”。如:
He hurt his back when playing squash.
他打壁球时背部受伤了。
What he said at the meeting hurt me.
他在会议上说的话伤害了我。
(2)wound常指“外伤”,特别指“在战争、打斗中受到的伤害”。如:
He was wounded in the war in the left arm.
他在战争中左胳膊受了伤。
(3)injure一般指“在意外事故中受伤”。如:
Three people were killed and five injured in the crash.
撞车事故中有三人死亡,五人受伤。
(4)destroy一般指“彻底损坏”,常译成“毁坏,破坏”。如:
The school was destroyed completely by a big fire.
学校被一场大火彻底烧毁了。
4.arise,rise,raise
(1)arise常表示问题等的“产生,出现”,主语多为抽象名词。如:
A new crisis has arisen.
新危机已经出现。
(2)rise其过去式、过去分词分别为rose,risen,是不及物动词,不能接宾语,无被动语态,意为“上升,升起;起床;增长”。如:
Food prices have risen rapidly in the past few months.
在过去的几个月中,食物的价格上涨得飞快。
(3)raise用作及物动词,后可接one’s hand/a stone/the flag/the price/one’s voice等,可用于被动语态。侧重表示把人或物提高到较高的位置或水平,既可指具体的事物,也可用于比喻意义。如:
Finally the ship was raised to the surface of the water.
最后,船被打捞出水面。
5.match,fit,suit
(1)match既可用作及物动词又可用作不及物动词,多指大小、色调、形状、性质等方面的搭配,意为“相配,相一致”。如:
That hat matches your jacket well.
那顶帽子与你的短上衣很相配。
(2)fit既可用作及物动词也可用作不及物动词,多指衣物等尺寸、大小“适合,合身”。如:
Not every shoe fits every foot.
并非每只鞋都合脚。
(3)suit表示“相配,合身”,强调衣服的颜色、花样、款式等适合某人,也可指合乎需要、口味和条件等。如:
Would Monday suit you?
星期一可以吗?
四、动词考法
考查动词短语及搭配
同一动词和不同的介词或副词搭配有着不同的含义:同一介词或副词和不同的动词搭配含义也会不同。如:
give+in/out/away/up turn+in/out/on/off/up/down
put +up/on/down/away/off set+up/off/out/about/aside
cut+up/down/off/in come+along/off/across/through
carry/feed/put/focus+on get/look/take/come+over
典例展示1 (2016•全国卷Ⅱ)Most of us are more focused ________ our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day.
答案 on
解析 be focused on为固定搭配,意为“集中于……”。故答案为on。
典例展示2 (2014•辽宁高考)OK. Don’t laugh ________ me. I may look funny.
答案 at
解析 laugh at是固定搭配,意为“嘲笑”。故答案为at。
跟踪训练
考点突破
Ⅰ.动词辨析
open,earn,reserve,deny,accumulate,negotiate,limit,remind,order,fail
1.William found it increasingly difficult to read,for his eyesight was beginning to ________.
2.If you don’t like the drink you ________,just leave it and try a different one.
3.Mary,I ________ John of his promise to help you.
4.Knowledge and learning are important if we want to be successful,but they may also ________ our thinking.
5.The minister said,“We are ready for discussions with any legal parties,but we’ll never ________ with criminals.”
6.Clinical evidence began to ________,suggesting that the new drugs had a wider range of useful activities than had been predicted from experiments in animals.
7.—Are you still mad at her?
—Not really,but I can’t ________ that her remarks hurt me.
8.I’d prefer to ________ my judgment until I find all the evidence.
9.You are old enough to ________ your own living.
10.I ________ a bank account after I made  1,000 by doing a part­time job during the summer vacation.
Ⅱ.动词短语辨析
take on,come across,look up,go over,bring up,put up,care about,turn down,work out,speed up,bring down,put up with
1.I can ________________ the house being untidy,but I hate it if it’s not clean.
2.The government has taken measures to ____________________ the high prices of daily goods to keep the market stable.
3.They are broadening the bridge to ________________ the flow of traffic.
4.You can’t predict everything.Often things don’t ________________ as you expect.
5.—You look upset.What’s the matter?
—I had my proposal ________________ again.
6.If you ________________ faults but you still want the bicycle,ask the shop assistant to reduce the price.
7.He decided that he would drive all the way home instead of ________________ at a hotel for the night.
8.Born into a family with three brothers,David was ________________ to value the sense of sharing.
9.To get a better grade,you should ________________ the notes again before the test.
10.I often ________________ the words I don’t know in the dictionary or on the Internet.
11.She ________________ an old friend of hers yesterday while she was shopping at the department store.
12.Some insects ________________ the color of their surroundings to protect themselves.
能力提升
Ⅰ.阅读理解
A
The mystery of why a baby is comforted by being picked up has been discovered.A new study not only shows that babies deeply relax when they are carried,but goes on to explain the physical processes at work.An instinct(本能) in evolution causes crying babies to calm down,when they are held in their mother’s arms.
When babies are picked up and carried,their heart rate slows down and they “automatically and deeply” relax.But this doesn’t happen when they are simply held,the study found.The scientists say the study is the first to show that the baby’s response to being calmed is a coordinated(协调的) set of nervous regulation of hearts.
The findings could help parents who have trouble tranquilizing their babies,claim the scientists.“Their baby response reduces the mother’s burden of carrying,and is important to both the mother and the baby,” Dr.Kumi Kuroda,from the Riken Brain Science Institute in Japan.The researchers believe the calming response is a survival traits(特征) preserved by evolution in many mammals,including lions and squirrels.
The research involved measuring electrical brain activity in both human babies and mouse babies.When baby mice are carried by their mothers,their legs flexed(弯曲的) and they stopped giving off loud sound.In mice,the calming response was depended on the sense of touch and the ability to feel body movement.
The findings may have importance for parenting,say the scientists.“Such proper understanding of babies would reduce parents’ feeling of failure and be important,because crying is a major risk for child abuse,” said Dr.Kuroda.“Although our study was done on mothers,we believe that this is not specific to mums and can be used by any primary caregiver.”
1.What response do crying babies have when they are picked up?
A.They stop crying and fall asleep quickly.
B.They smile at the mothers at once.
C.They relax with the heart rate slowing down.
D.They ask for more body contact.
2.What does the underlined word “tranquilizing” in Paragraph 3 probably mean?
A.Raising.  B.Calming.
C.Carrying.  D.Teaching.
3.Who will be interested in the text?
A.Primary school teachers.
B.Parents with teenagers.
C.People who take care of babies.
D.Couples who want to have children.
4.What does the text mainly talk about?
A.How we can take good care of babies.
B.Mothers have trouble in bringing up children.
C.What to do when your baby cries.
D.Why babies calm down when picked up and carried.
B
A rescue center in Alaska has taken in an orphaned baby seal that was still in the body when a hunter killed its mother on Easter Sunday.
The Alaska Sea Life Center says a hunter killed the baby’s mother in a village on Nelson Island in the Bering Sea.The hunter then realized there was a live baby inside the seal and successfully delivered it.
The hunter’s daughter found a hotline of the Seward Rescue Center and called to report the incident.Guided by center staff,a village teacher helped transport the baby to the local airport,and the animal was flown to Anchorage.The Alaska Sea Life Center members met the baby,now called Maxwell,at the Anchorage airport and drove him to Seward on Monday.Staff members say the baby has responded well to food and care,but his condition is still considered very serious.
“Maxwell was close to full­term,and everything looks fairly normal,” said Pam Tuomi,a center vet.“But babies that have never received antibodies(抗体) from their mother’s milk are at higher risk of infection,so we will keep Maxwell in a separate place and watch him closely for the next few weeks.”
The Sea Life Center is Alaska’s only permanent facility licensed to house stranded(搁浅的) marine mammals and seabirds.Staff choose a theme each year for naming animals admitted there,and this year the names are related to caffeine.
“We hope to give Maxwell a second chance at life as a wild seal,” said Brett Long,the center’s director.
5.What can we learn from the passage?
A.The mother seal was killed in order to protect the baby seal.
B.The mother seal was killed before the baby seal was born.
C.The cruel hunter was unwilling to save the baby seal.
D.Both the mother seal and the baby seal were in good condition now.
6.What did the hunter’s daughter do with the baby seal?
A.She helped to feed it.
B.She delivered it successfully.
C.She reported it to a rescue center.
D.She persuaded her father to save it.
7.The underlined word “him” in the third paragraph probably refers to “________”.
A.the hunter
B.the baby seal
C.the center member
D.the village teacher
8.Maxwell is at high risk of infection because ________.
A.it was born too early
B.there are no antibodies in its body
C.it can’t get used to the life in the center
D.it can’t be taken good care of in the center
Ⅱ.完形填空
You are near the front line of a battle.Around you shells(炮弹)are exploding;people are shooting from a house behind you.What are you doing there?You aren’t a soldier.You aren’t__1__carrying a gun.You’re standing in front of a __2__and you’re telling the TV__3__what is happening.
It’s all in a day’s work for a war reporter,and it can be very__4__.In the first two years of the __5__in former Yugoslavia(前南斯拉夫),28 reporters and photographers were killed.Hundreds more were __6__.What kind of people put themselves in danger to __7__pictures to our TV screens and __8__to our newspapers?Why do they do it?
“I think it’s every young journalist’s__9__to be a foreign reporter,”says Michael Nicholson,“that’s__10__you find the excitement.So when the first opportunity comes,you take it__11__it is a war.”
But there are moments of__12__.Jeremy Bowen says,“Yes,when you’re lying on the ground and bullets(子弹)are flying__13__your ears,you think:‘What am I doing here?I’m not going to do this again.’But that feeling__14__after a while and when the next war starts,you’ll be __15__.”
“None of us believes that we’re going to__16__,”adds Michael.But he always __17__ a lucky charm(护身符)with him.It was given to him by his wife for his first war.It’s a card which says“Take care of yourself.”Does he ever think about dying?“Oh,__18__,and every time it happens you look to the sky and say to God,‘If you get me out of this,I __19__I’ll never do it again.’You can almost hear God __20__,because you know he doesn’t believe you.”
1.A.simply  B.really
C.merely  D.even
2.A.crowd  B.house
C.battlefield  D.camera
3.A.producers  B.viewers
C.directors  D.actors
4.A.dangerous  B.exciting
C.normal  D.disappointing
5.A.stay  B.fight
C.war  D.life
6.A.injured  B.buried
C.defeated  D.saved
7.A.bring  B.show
C.take  D.make
8.A.scenes  B.passages
C.stories  D.contents
9.A.belief  B.dream
C.duty  D.faith
10.A.why  B.what
C.how  D.where
11.A.even so  B.ever since
C.as if  D.even if
12.A.fear  B.surprise
C.shame  D.sadness
13.A.into  B.around
C.past  D.through
14.A.returns  B.goes
C.continues  D.occurs
15.A.there  B.away
C.out  D.home
16.A.leave  B.escape
C.die  D.remain
17.A.hangs  B.wears
C.holds  D.carries
18.A.never  B.many times
C.some time  D.seldom
19.A.consider  B.accept
C.promise  D.guess
20.A.whispering  B.laughing
C.screaming  D.crying
 
第6讲 动词的3个考查角度、13组高频短语记忆、5组近义词辨析及动词考法
考点突破
Ⅰ.1.fail 2.ordered 3.reminded 4.limit 5.negotiate 6.accumulate 7.deny 8.reserve 9.earn 10.opened
Ⅱ.1.put up with 2.bring down 3.speed up 4.work out 5.turned down 6.care about 7.putting up 8.brought up 9.go over 10.look up 11.came across 12.take on
能力提升
Ⅰ.1.C 
2.B 
3.C 
4.D 
5.B 
6.C 
7.B 
8.B 
Ⅱ.【语篇解读】 本文讲述了战地记者在战场上所遇到的各种艰难和危险并且描述了他们的思想斗争的情况。
1.D 
2.D 
3.B 
4.A 
5.C 
6.A 
7.A 
8.C 
9.B 
10.D 
11.D 
12.A 
13.C 
14.B 
15.A 
16.C 
17.D 
18.B 
19.C 
20.B 

 

 

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