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Research on the human brain has been attracting more and more scientists in recent years, just like the booming hi-tech industry. One of the latest research topics is how to change the human brain or combine the computer and the human brain, i.e. to transplant a chip into a human brain. This idea may make everyone’s dream come true. If we compare a human brain to a hard disc, what the scientists are doing is to enlarge the capacity of the hard disc. For the time being, there are some difficulties in such transplant experiments, but scientists never give up.
Experiments have started on animals. In 1996, a transplant experiment performed at the Defense and Military Physiology Research Institute in the U.S. turned a bear into a dolphin.
The dolphin was named Ted, and the bear was named Tallin. Using the most advanced technology available, deep and detailed images were made of the memory area in Ted’s brain containing information about swimming by the scientists. They obtained a series of useful information, the signals transferred by the nervous system. Such information was saved into a button-sized chip, which was then transplanted into the action memory area in Tallin’s brain. The information saved on the chip was released by means of electric power.
Recently, another comprehensive memory transplant was performed at the Motor Nerve Research Institute of the University of California. The comprehensive memory transplanted in the experiment included actions, moods, logic, words, images, etc. The experiment involved an entire transplant of the memory area. This was the largest such experiment done so far.
The transplant was performed making a transfer from a dog named “Genius” to a dog named “Idiot”. “Genius” could understand and follow up to 100 gestures and orders made by its master. It was a real genius in memorizing. “Idiot” was the younger brother of “Genius”. It had no contact with people at all since its birth. It became an animal with nothing in its brain, without any memory.
The operation was a complete success. When the two dogs woke up, “Idiot” had grasped all the abilities “Genius” possessed; it was good at memorizing and sensible. It could follow every gesture and any command given by its master. But “Genius” gave no response to its master, and in fact did not recognize him at all.
45. The purpose of the experiment is _____.
A. to combine the computer and the human brain B. to make bear swim
C. to make some stupid dog turn clever D. to enlarge the capacity of human brain
46. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A. The scientists transferred a button-sized chip with useful information in Tallin’s brain.
B. The first comprehensive memory transplant was performed at the Motor Nerve Research University.
C. The second experiment wasn’t an entire transplant of the memory area.
D. The Idiot was an animal with memory before brain experiment
47. What does the underlined word “success” refer to?
A. The two dogs woke up.
B. They were both good at memorizing.
C. The Idiot grasped all the abilities of Genius.
D. The Genius grasped all the abilities of Idiot.
48. According to the text, we can infer _____.
A. a person can know more after the experiment
B. a bear can swim after being transferred a chip with related useful information
C. a dog can become clever after entire transplant of the memory area
D. it is really good for animals to have been involved in the transplant experiment
答案 45-48 DACB
Most people feel lonely sometimes, but it usually only lasts between a few minutes and a few hours. This kind of loneliness is not serious. In fact, it is quite normal. For some people, though, loneliness can last for years. Now researchers say there are three different types of loneliness.
The first kind of loneliness is temporary. This is the most common type. It usually disappears quickly and does not require any special attention. The second kind situational loneliness is a natural result of a particular situation. For example, a family problem, the death of a loved one, or moving to a new place. Although this kind of loneliness can cause physical problems, such as headaches and sleeplessness, it usually does not last for more than a year.
The third kind of loneliness is the most severe. Unlike the second type chronic（长期的）loneliness usually lasts more than two years and has no specific cause. People who experience habitual loneliness have problems socializing and becoming close to others. Unfortunately, many chronically lonely people think there is little or nothing they can do to improve their condition.
Psychologists agree that one important factor in loneliness is a person’s social contacts, e.g. friends, family members, co-workers, etc. We depend on various people for different reasons. For instance, our families give us emotional support, our parents and teachers give us guidance, and our friends share similar interests and activities. However, psychologists have found that, though lonely people may have many social contacts, they sometimes feel they should have more. They question their popularity.
Psychologists are trying to find ways to help habitually lonely people for two reasons; they are unhappy and unable to socialize and there is a connection between chronic loneliness and serious illness such as heart disease. While temporary and situational loneliness can be a normal, healthy part of life, chronic loneliness can be a very sad, and sometimes dangerous condition.
46. How would you treat temporary loneliness according to the passage?
A. Talk to friends. B. Just ignore it.
C. Go to see a doctor. D. Ask your teachers for guidance.
47. “It” in the last sentence of the second paragraph refers to ______.
A. temporary loneliness B. situational loneliness
C. a new place D. sleeplessness
48. The topic of the 4th paragraph is that______.
A. one problem of loneliness is a person’s social contacts
B. we depend on various people for different reasons
C. lonely people don’t have many social problems
D. lonely people don’t have many friends
49. Why do psychologists want to help chronically lonely people?
A. Chronic loneliness can cause family problems.
B. Chronic loneliness can cause serious illness.
C. Chronic loneliness cannot be overcome.
D. A, B, and C are all correct.
50. What is the best title for the passage?
A. Three Kinds of Loneliness. B. Loneliness and Diseases.
C. Loneliness and Social Contacts. D. Chronic Loneliness.
I know what you’re thinking: pizza（比萨饼）? For breakfast? But the truth is that you can have last night’s leftovers in the a.m. if you want to.
I know lots of women who skip breakfast（不吃早餐）, and they have a ton of different excuses for doing it. Some say they don’t have time; others think they’re “saving” calories（卡路里）；still others just don’t like breakfast food .
But the bottom line is that eating in the morning is very important when you’re trying to lose weight. “Eating just about anything from 300 to 400 calories would be better than nothing at all,” says Katherine Brooking R.D. , who developed the super-easy eating plan for this year’s “SELF CHALLENGE”. And even pizza can be healthy if it’s loaded with vegetables, and you stick to one small piece.
Breakfast is one meal I never miss, and the same goes for most weight loss success stories. Research shows that eating breakfast keeps you from overeating later in the day. Researchers at the University of Southern California found that breakfast skippers have a bigger chance of gaining weight than those who regularly have a morning meal.
So eat something in the morning, anything. I know plenty of friends who end up having no breakfast altogether, and have just coffee or orange juice. I say, try heating up last night’s leftovers—it may sound crazy, but if it works for you, do it! I find if I tell myself, “You can always eat it tomorrow,” I put away the leftovers instead of eating more that night. Try it. You may save yourself some pre-bedtime calories. And watch your body gain the fat-burning effects.
64. The word “leftovers” in Paragraph 1 probably means__________.
A. food remaining after a meal B. things left undone
C. meals made of vegetables D. pizza topped with fruit
65. What can we infer from the text?
A. Working women usually have breakfast in a hurry.
B. Many people have wrong ideas about breakfast.
C. There are some easy ways of cooking a meal.
D. Eating vegetables helps save energy.
66. According to the last paragraph, it is important to____________.
A. eat something for breakfast B. be careful about what you eat u
C. heat up food before eating it D. eat calorie-controlled food
67. The text is written mainly for those_____________.
A. who go to work early B. who want to lose weight
C. who stay up late D. who eat before sleep
答案 64-67 ABAB
We have met the enemy, and he is ours. We bought him at a pet shop. When monkey-pox, a disease usually found in the African rain forest, suddenly turns up in children in the American Midwest, it’s hard not to wonder if the disease that comes from foreign animals is homing in on human beings. “Most of the infections (感染) we think of as human infections started in other animals,” says Stephen Morse, director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at Columbia University.
It’s not just that we’re going to where the animals are; we’re also bringing them closer to us. Popular foreign pets have brought a whole new disease to this country. A strange illness killed Isaksen’s pets, and she now thinks that keeping foreign pets is a bad idea. “I don’t think it’s fair to have them as pets when we have such a limited knowledge of them,” says Isaksen.
“Laws allowing these animals to be brought in from deep forest areas without stricter control need changing,” says Peter Schantz. Monkey-pox may be the wake-up call. Researchers believe infected animals may infect their owners. We know very little about these new diseases. A new bug (病毒) may be kind at first. But it may develop into something harmful. Monkey-pox doesn’t look a major infectious disease. But it is not impossible to pass the disease from person to person.
56. We learn from Paragraph 1 that the pet sold at the shop may _________.
A. come from Columbia B. prevent us from being infected
C. enjoy being with children D. suffer from monkey-pox
57. Why did Isaksen advise people not to have foreign pets?
A. They attack human beings. B. We need to study native animals.
C. They can’t live out of the rain forest. D. We do not know much about them yet.
58. What does the phrase “the wake-up call” in Paragraph 3 most probably mean?
A. a new disease B. a clear warning C. a dangerous animal D. a morning call
59. The text suggests that in the future we _______.
A. may have to fight against more new diseases
B. may easily get infected by diseases from dogs
C. should not be allowed to have pets
D. should stop buying pets from Africa
60. The last paragraph means _________.
A. we should have laws to stop having pets at home
B. wild animals shouldn’t adopted as pets
C. laws should be passed to avoid pets’ diseases spreading
D. people with pets should be stayed at home
It’s not just adults who have a thing or two to discuss with other people, babies too have their own social lives and enjoy group interaction, according to a world-first study.
The breakthrough study conducted by psychologist Professor Ben Bradley, at Charles Sturt University, could completely transform the way child-care centres are set up. In their study, the researchers examined groups of nine-month-old babies in new South Wales and Britain.
And they came across astonishing results – it was found that infants had “social brains” and focused not just on their mothers but on social life in groups as well.
“They communicate with more than one baby at once, and show jealousy and generousness,” said Professor Bradley.
He added, “They develop their own meanings through group interaction, they notice if a group member is behaving differently and they take on roles, such as leaders and followers.”
“A baby who has a depressed mother tends to be withdrawn（内向的）, but put that same baby in a group of its peers（同龄人）and they behave and interact like any other baby.”
It was the first all-baby group study ever to be conducted. “Most studies of babies concentrate on the infant-mother relationship, assuming that is the single foundation for mental health, but babies are constantly involved with groups of people other than their mothers: fathers, siblings, grandparents and those taking care. Therefore, the ‘mother-baby approach’ needs to be combined with a ‘group approach’,” said Bradley.
Phoebe Christison, a child-care worker at Camperdown Sunshine Bubs in Sydney’s inner west, said she often noticed what appeared to be emotional attachments developed between toddlers.
She said, “Joel（10 months）and Isabella（11 months）always like to hold hands when they sit in their high chairs and eat. And babies definitely show jealousy. They push and touch each other, and copy what the other is doing.”
61. Which of the following statements about the study is TRUE?
A. It’s the first study to look at all-baby groups.
B. It divides babies according to their personalities.
C. Its aim is to change the way of child care.
D. Its results are unbelievable.
62. A baby who has a depressed mother _________.
A. tends to be a follower B. also enjoys group interaction
C. has poor social ability D. pays more attention to its mother
63. What can be inferred from the result of this study?
A. Babies are affected by groups more than by their mothers.
B. There’s no need of child-care centers at all.
C. Adults should include babies when having social activities.
D. The normal infant-mother bond alone isn’t enough for the good mental health for babies.
64. The underlined word “toddlers” in Para. 8 can be replaced by “_________”.
A. adults B. infants C. peers D. groups
65. The example given in the last paragraph proves that a baby ________.
A. is born to be friendly to other babies
B. has interest in peers as well as in its mother
C. may have emotional attachments to another baby
D. shows jealousy and generousness as an adult
Want to lose weight? Try eating. That’s one of the ways being developed by scientists experimenting with foods that trick the body into feeling full.
At he Institute of Food Research in Norwich, England, food expert Peter Wilde and his colleagues are developing foods that slow down the digestive system, which then sends a signal to the brain that stops appetite. “That fools you into thinking you’ve eaten far too much when you really haven’t,” said Wilde. From his studies on fat digestion, he said it should be possible to make foods, from bread to yoghurt, that make it easier to diet. While the research is still in its early stages, Wilde’s approach to controlling appetite is one that some doctors say could be a key to solving the problem of obesity.
“Being able to switch off appetite would be a big help for people having trouble losing weight,” said Steve Bloom, a professor of investigative medicine at London’s Imperial College, who is not connected to Wilde’s research. Bloom said that regulating appetite through foods is theoretically possible. But Bloom warned that controlling appetite may be very challenging. “The body has lots of things to prevent its regulatory systems from being tricked,” he said.
Wilde’s research makes use of the body’s ways of digesting fat. Fat normally gets broken down in the first part of the small intestines（肠道）. When you eat a high-fat meal, however, the body can only digest the fat entirely further down in the intestines, which then causes the body to produce a kind of chemical to stop the appetite.
Wilde’s approach copies what happens with a high-fat meal. He coats fat droplets（滴）in foods with modified proteins from plants, so it takes longer for the chemical that breaks down fat to reach it. That means that the fat isn’t digested until it hits the far reaches of the intestines. At that point, intestinal cells send a signal telling the brain it’s full. Even though the body hasn’t had a high-fat meal, it stops the appetite as if it has. If the fat had been digested earlier in the intestines, no such signal would be sent.
66. According to Wilde’s research, what could people do if they want to lose weight?
A. Eat more bread and yoghurt. B. Trick the body by eating nothing.
C. Have foods with fat droplets coated. D. Control their digestive system strictly.
67. The underlined word “obesity” in Para. 2 most probably means “________”.
A. being too fat B. eating too much food
C. stopping appetite D. being unhealthy
68. What can be inferred about Professor Bloom’s opinion towards Wilde’s approach?
A. It won’t work since the body’s regulatory systems will never be tricked.
B. It is sure to switch off the appetite of people with a weight problem.
C. It sounds terrible because regulating appetite through foods is not practical at all.
D. It’s no that easy to trick the body so more research should be done.
69. Which of the following is TRUE about Wilde’s approach?
A. A kind of chemical is added to make a high-fat meal less fatty.
B. Fat is digested earlier and the body sends a signal telling the brain it’s full.
C. Fat won’t get broken down in the first part of the small intestines.
D. The chemical that breaks down fat will not reach the fat.
70. The passage is written to ________.
A. give advice on how to stop eating high-fat meals
B. introduce a research on controlling appetite
C. discuss the argument between two professors
D. show different ways to trick the body
It is hard to track the blue whale, the ocean’s largest creature, which has almost been killed off by commercial whaling and is now listed as an endangered species. Attaching radio devices to it is difficult and visual sightings are too unreliable to give real insight into its behavior.
So biologists were delighted early this year when with the help of the Navy they were able to track a particular blue whale for 43 days recording its sounds. This was possible because of the Navy’s formerly top-secret system of underwater listening devices across the oceans.
Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian (平民的) scientists after the cold war as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system built over the decades to track the ships of potential enemies.
Earth scientists announced at a news conference recently that they had used the system for closely observing a deep-sea volcanic eruption for the first time and that they planned similar studies. Other scientists have propose to use the network for tracking ocean currents and measuring changes in ocean and global temperatures. The speed of sound in water is roughly one mile a second—slower than through land but faster than through air. The most important thing is that different layers of ocean water can act as channels for sounds focusing them in the same way a stethoscope (听诊器) does when it carries faint noises from a patient’s chest to a doctor’s ear. This focusing is the main reason that even relatively weak sounds in the ocean especially low-frequency ones, can often travel thousands of miles.
66. The passage is chiefly about .
A. an effort to protect an endangered marine species
B. the civilian use of a military detection system
C. the expose of a US Navy top-secret weapon
D. a new way to look into the behavior of blue whales
67. The underwater listening system was originally designed .
A. to trace and locate enemy ships
B. to observe deep-sea volcanic eruptions
C. to study the movement of ocean currents
D. to replace the global radio communications network
68. The deep-sea listening system makes use of .
A. the top-level technology of focusing sounds under water
B. the capability of sound to travel at high speed
C. the unique characteristic of layers of ocean water in carrying sound
D. low-frequency sounds traveling across different layers of water
69. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A. new radio devices should be developed on tracking the endangered blue whales
B. blue whales are no longer endangered with the use of the new listening system
C. opinions differ as to whether civilian scientists should be allowed to use military technology
D. military technology has great potential in civilian use
70. Which of the following is True about the U. S. Navy underwater listening network?
A. It is now partly available to civilian scientists.
B. It has been replaced by a more advanced system.
C. It became useless to the military after the cold war.
D. It is a must in protecting endangered species.
People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed．It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive．
Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions．They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors．There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed．As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from one another, and there is a great deal of debate between proponents of each theory．The controversy is often referred to as “nature/nurture”．
Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological and genetic factors．That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics, and behavior is central to this theory．Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts．
Proponents of the “nurture” theory, or, as they are often called, behaviorists, claimed that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act．A behaviorist, B．F．Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings．The behaviorists’ view of the human being is quite mechanistic; they maintain that, like machines, humans’ respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior．
Either of these theories cannot yet fully explain human behavior．In fact, it is quite likely that the key to our behavior lies somewhere between these two extremes．That the controversy will continue for a long time is certain．
69．Which of the following statements would the supporters of the “nature” theory agree with?
A．A person’s instincts have little effect on his actions．
B．Environment is important in determining a person’s behavior and personality．
C．Biological reasons have a strong influence on how we act．
D．The behaviorists’ view correctly explains how we act．
70．Concerning the nature/nurture controversy, the writer of this article ．
A．supports the nature theory
B．supports the nurture theory
C．believes both are completely wrong
D．thinks that the correct explanation of human behavior will take ideas from both theories．
71．In the United States, Black people often score below White people on intelligence tests．With this in mind, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A．Nature proponents would say that Whites are genetically superior to Blacks．
B．Supporters of the nature theory would say that Whites score well because they have a superior environment．
C．Behaviorists would say that Blacks often lack the educational and environmental advantages that Whites enjoy．
D．Nurture proponents would disagree that Blacks are biologically inferior to Whites．
答案 C D B
Climate change connected with the reduction of wetlands at the source of the country’s two longest rivers, the Yangtze and the Yellow, has reduced the volume of water flowing into them, scientists said.
Scientists studied changes over past 40 years to the wetlands on the cold Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in west China where the two rivers have their sources.
They found the wetlands on the plateau have shrunk（减少）more than 10 percent over the past four years. The wetlands at the source of the Yangtze have suffered the most, decreasing by 29 percent.
About 17.5 percent of the small lakes at the source of the Yangtze have dried up, the scientists said.
“The wetland plays a key role in holding water and charging the water volume of the rivers,” Wang Xugen, a researcher, said.
“The reduction of the wetland on the plateau is closely connected with global warming,” Wang said, adding that even though rainfall has increased in the area, the reduction of the wetland has reduced the flow of the Yangtze and the Yellow.
Records by the weather station at the head of the Yangtze showed yearly rainfall at its source increased from
“But the increased rainfall didn’t lead to more water’s flowing into the rivers because the evaporation（蒸发）was so fast as a result of global warming,” Li Shijie, a researcher, said.
Another study showed global warming had caused glaciers（冰川） to get smaller, frozen earth to melt, grasslands to turn yellow and rivers to dry up.
The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau used to have 36,000 glaciers covering an area of 50,000 sq km. In the past 100 years, their area has been reduced by 30 percent.
53. According to the passage, the true statement of the following is that _____.
A. the wetlands at the source of the Yellow have decreased by 29 percent
B. there’s no more water in about 17.5 percent of the small lakes at the source of the Yangtze
C. the reduction of the wetland on the plateau has nothing to do with global warming
D. yearly rainfall has increased from
54. Which of the following is NOT the result of global warming?
A. Frozen earth melts. B. Evaporation becomes faster.
B. Sea level rises. D. Plants grow better in greenhouses.
55.The area that the glaciers of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau cover is now about _____ sq km.
A. 35,000 B.
56. In the passage, _____ plays a most important part in holding water and changing the volume of the rivers.
A. yearly rainfall B. the evaporation C. the wetland D. climate change
A popular saying goes, “Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me.” However, that’s not really true. Words have the power to build us up or tear us down. It doesn’t matter if the words come from someone else or ourselves— the positive and negative effects are just as lasting.
We all talk to ourselves sometimes. We’re usually too embarrassed to admit it, though. In fact, we really shouldn’t be because more and more experts believe talking to ourselves out loud is a healthy habit.
This “self-talk” helps us motivate ourselves, remember things, solve problems, and calm ourselves down. Be aware, though, that as much as 77% of self-talk tends to be negative. So in order to stay positive, we should only speak words of encouragement to ourselves. We should also be quick to give ourselves a pat on the back. The next time you finish a project, do well in a test, or finally clean your room, join me in saying “Good job!”
Often, words come out of our mouths without us thinking about the effect they will have. But we should be aware that our words cause certain responses in others. For example, when returning an item to a store, we might use warm, friendly language during the exchange. And the clerk will probably respond in a similar manner. Or harsh（刻薄的）and critical language will most likely cause the clerk to be defensive.
Words possess power because of their lasting effect. Many of us regret something we once said. And we remember unkind words said to us! Before speaking, we should always ask ourselves: Is it true? Is it loving? Is it needed? If what we want to say doesn’t pass this test, then it’s better left unsaid.
Words possess power: both positive and negative. Those around us receive encouragement when we speak positively. We can offer hope, build self-esteem（自尊）and motivate others to do their best. Negative words destroy all those things. Will we use our words to hurt or to heal? The choice is ours.
57. The main idea of the first paragraph is that _____.
A. words have a lasting effect on us B. inspiring words give us confidence
C. negative words may let us down D. not sticks and stones but words will hurt us
58. There is no sense for us to feel embarrassed when we talk to ourselves because _____.
A. almost everybody has the habit of talking to themselves
B. talking to ourselves always gives us courage
C. we can benefit from talking to ourselves
D. it does no harm to have “self-talk” when we are alone
59. The underlined part in the third paragraph means that we should also timely _____.
A. remind ourselves B. praise ourselves
C. make ourselves relaxed D. give ourselves amusement
60. The author would probably hold the view that _____.
A. encouraging words are sure to lead to kind offers
B. negative words may motivate us to make more progress
C. people tend to remember friendly words
D. it is better to think twice before talking to others
Although many Chinese students say that their knowledge of English grammar is good, most would admit that their spoken English is poor. Whenever I speak to a Chinese student they always say," My spoken English is poor. " However, their spoken English does not have to remain “poor”! I would like to suggest that there may be some reasons for their problems with spoken English.
First, they fail to find suitable words to express themselves due to a limited vocabulary. Obviously the better answer is to expand their vocabulary. However, you can speak with a limited vocabulary, if your attitude is positive. Others will follow you as long as you use the words that you know.
The third reason is that not enough attention is paid to listening. You have one mouth but two ears! All that is heard is necessary for you to start speaking.
Fourth, most Chinese students are reactive rather than proactive(主动进攻型)language learners. Instead of actively seeking out opportunities to improve their spoken English they passively wait for speaking opportunities to come to them and wonder why their English always remains poor. If you have this proactive outlook, then you will see English opportunities wherever you go.
If you do not use your English beyond the classroom you will forget what English you know. Remember: USE IT OR LOSE IT! You can learn how to speak English better by speaking English more.
41．What is most probably the writer's purpose in writing the passage?
A．To improve your reading.
B．To improve your listening.
C．To improve your spoken English.
D．To improve your vocabulary.
42．It can be inferred from the third paragraph that _______
A．Don't be fluency．Just be accuracy !
B．Don't be nervous, don't be shy．Just write !
C．Don't be afraid of making mistakes．Just speak !
D．Don't be shy, don't be fluency．Just listen and write !
43．The last paragraph is possibly close to the meaning of "________"
A．More hurry, less speed． B．Better late than never.
C．Silence is gold． D．Practice makes perfect.
44．The text is most probably taken from a _______
A．teacher's diary B．report on study
C．sports newspaper D．movie magazine
Light travels at a speed which is about a million times faster than the speed of sound. In one second, light travels about 300,000 km, but sound travels only 0.334 km. You can get some idea of this difference by watching the start of a race. If you stand some distance away from the starter, you can see smoke come from his gun before the sound reaches your ears.
This great speed of light produces some strange facts. Sunlight takes about 8 minutes to reach us. If you look at the light of the moon tonight, remember that the light rays left the moon 1.3 seconds before they reached you. The nearest star is so far away that the light which you can see from it tonight started to travel towards you four years ago at a speed of nearly 2 million km per minute. In some cases, the light from one of tonight’s stars started on its journey to you before you were born.
Thus, if we want to be honest, we cannot say, “The stars are shining tonight.” We have to say, “The stars look pretty. They were shining four years ago but their light has only just reached Earth.”
41. Light speed is _____ than sound speed.
A. millions times faster B. a million times slower
C. about millions of times faster D. about a million times faster
42. If you stand 200 meters away from a man who is firing a gun to start a race, you will find out that ___
A. you can hear the gun before you see the smoke
B. sound does not travel as fast as light
C. the sound of the gun will reach you before the man fires his gun
D. sound travels about a million times faster than light
43. The light of the nearest star you see tonight has been ____ for years.
A. on the earth B. on the moon C. away from the sun D. away from the star
Many of the most damaging types of weather begin quickly, strike suddenly, and disappear rapidly, destroying small areas while leaving neighboring areas untouched．Such event as a tornado（龙卷风）struck the northeastern part of Edmonton, Alberta, in July 1987．Total damages from the tornado went beyond $250 million, the highest ever for any Canadian storm.
Traditional computer models of the atmosphere have limited value in predicting short-lived local storms like the Edmonton tornado, because the available weather data are generally not detailed enough to allow computers to study carefully the slight atmospheric changes that come before these storms. In most nations, for example, weather-balloon observations are taken just once every twelve hours at places separated by hundreds of miles. With such limited data, traditional forecasting models do a much better job predicting general weather conditions over large areas than they do forecasting specific local events.
Until recently, the observation intensive method needed for exact, very short-range forecasts, or “Nowcasts,” was not possible. The cost of equipping and operating many thousands of conventional weather stations was extremely high, and the difficulties concerned in rapidly collecting and processing the weather data from such a network were hard to overcome.
Fortunately, scientific and technological advances have overcome most of these problems. Radar(雷达) systems and satellites are all able to make detailed, nearly continuous observation over large areas at a lower cost. Communications satellites can send out data around the world cheaply and immediately, and modern computers can quickly collect and analyze this large amount of weather information.
Meteorologists（气象学者）and computer scientists now work together to design computer programs and video equipment able to change weather data into words and graphic displays（图解）that forecasters can understand easily and quickly. As meteorologists have begun using these new technologies in weather forecasting offices, nowcasting is becoming a reality.
60．Why can’t traditional computer models predict short-lived local storms?
A．The weather data people collect are often wrong.
B．Detailed weather data in some small areas are not available.
C．The computers are not advanced enough to predict them.
D．The computers are not used to forecast specific local events.
61．The word “Nowcast” in Paragraph 3 means ________.
A．a network to collect storm data B．a way of collecting weather data
C．a more advanced system of weather observation
D．a forecast which can predict weather in the small area
62．What can make “Nowcasts” a reality according to the passage?
A．Scientific and technological advances. B．Advanced computer programs.
C．Computer scientists. D．Meteorologists.
63．What does the passage mainly talk about?
A．The advantages of “Nowcasts”. B．A tornado in Edmonton, AlbertA．
C．The difficulty in predicting tornado. D．A great development in weather forecast.
Around the age of 40, honest people may already admit to noticing changes in their mental abilities. This is the beginning of a gradual decline that in all too many of us will end with full-blown dementia(痴呆).
However, a few drugs that might do the job, known as “cognitive enhancement(认知增强)”, are already on the market, and a few dozen others are on the way. Perhaps the best-known is modafinil. Licensed to treat narcolepsy(嗜眠症), the condition that causes people to suddenly fall asleep, it has notable effects in healthy people too. Modafinil can keep a person awake and his or her attention fixed for 90 hours straight, with none of anxiety, nervousness and bad concentration. In fact, with the help of modafinil, people who can hardly go to sleep can perform even better than their well-rested, un-medicated(未服药的) selves.
It’s an open secret that many, perhaps most, prescriptions for modafinil are written not for people who suffer from narcolepsy, but for those who simply want to stay awake. Similarly, many people are using Ritalin not because they suffer from attention problem or any other disorder, but because they want superior concentration during exams or heavy-duty activities.
Some drugs have also been specially designed to improve memory. Many of these seem to work, and without any major side effects. So why aren’t we all on cognitive enhancers already?
“We need to be careful what we wish for,” says Daniele Piomelli at the University of California at Irvine. Repairing and improving memory may have unwanted effects, he warns. “Eventually we may end up remembering things we don’t want to.”
68. According to the message, we can learn that originally modafinil is a drug designed for _____.
A. for both healthy and unhealthy people B. the treatment of dementia
C. people who can hardly go to sleep D. those suffering from falling asleep suddenly
69. The passage mainly talks about _____.
A. dementia—a threat to the old people B. modafinil—a nice drug for dementia
C. relevant drugs to a better brain D. cognitive enhancement
70. The underlined sentences in paragraph two wants to tell us that _____.
A. without modafinil people suffering from sleep problems cannot rest well
B. people lacking sleep can work better than they are in a healthy state if taking modafinil
C. modafinil has greater effects on healthy people if they take it
D. with modafinil people suffering from narcolepsy can fall asleep easily
71. What’s the writer’s attitude to the drugs mentioned in the passage?
A. Positive. B. Negative. C. Objective. D. Doubtful.
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